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U.S. History Facts. Home 1-50 51-100 101-150 151-200 201-225.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. History Facts. Home 1-50 51-100 101-150 151-200 201-225."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. History Facts

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8 1 a 16th-century alliance of the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, and Seneca Native American groups living in the eastern Great Lakes region. Iroquois League Home

9 2 He was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer whose voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general European awareness of the American continents in the Western Hemisphere. Christopher Columbus Home

10 3 an economic system in which nations increase their wealth and power by obtaining gold and silver and by establishing a favorable balance of trade. mercantilism Home

11 4 the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Western and the Eastern hemispheres. Columbian Exchange Home

12 5 the practice of holding a person in bondage for labor. Slavery Home

13 6 the forced removal of Africans from their homelands to serve as slave labor in the Americas. African Diaspora Home

14 7 the middle leg of the triangular trade routethe voyage from Africa to the Americasthat brought captured Africans into slavery Middle Passage Home

15 8 first permanent English settlement in North America established in Sir Walter Raleigh financed the settlement. Jamestown Home

16 9 a soldier and adventurer, he took control of the Jamestown settlement in late 1608 and convinced local tribes to trade corn to the colonists. John Smith Home

17 10 created in 1619, the first representative assembly in the American colonies. House of Burgesses Home

18 11 a member of the group that rejected the Church of England, sailed to America, and founded the Plymouth Colony in 1620 Pilgrim Home

19 12 an agreement established by the men who sailed to America on the Mayflower, which called for laws for the good of the colony and set forth the idea of self-government. Mayflower Compact Home

20 13 the movement of Puritans from England to establish settlements around the world, including 20,000 who sailed for America; the movement of African Americans between 1910 and 1920 to northern cities from the South Great Migration Home

21 14 a series of laws passed by Parliament, beginning in 1651, to ensure that England made money from its colonies trade. Navigation Acts Home

22 15 a 1739 uprising of slaves in South Carolina, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws. Stono Rebellion Home

23 16 a revival of religious feeling in the American colonies during the 1730s and 1740s. Great Awakening Home

24 17 an 18th-century movement that emphasized the use of reason and the scientific method to obtain knowledge Enlightenment Home

25 18 a conflict in North America from 1754 to 1763 that was part of a worldwide struggle between France and Britain; Britain defeated France and gained French Canada. French and Indian War Home

26 19 the 1763 treaty that ended the French and Indian War; Britain gave up all of North America east of the Mississippi River. Treaty of Paris Home

27 20 an order in which Britain prohibited its American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. Proclamation of 1763 Home

28 21 a 1765 law passed by Parliament that required all legal and commercial documents to carry an official stamp showing a tax had been paid. Stamp Act Home

29 22 a group of colonists who formed a secret society to oppose British policies at the time of the American Revolution. Sons of Liberty Home

30 23 leader of the Boston Sons of Liberty, he urged colonists to resist British controls Samuel Adams Home

31 24 a Patriot and member of Virginias House of Burgesses, - known and remembered primarily for his "Give me liberty or give me death" speech. Patrick Henry Home

32 25 author of Common Sense he was a radical Patriot, and recent immigrant from England. He believed that all Monarchies were corrupt and that is was Americas destiny to break from Great Britain. Thomas Paine Home

33 26 Famous American Patriot, inventor, and diplomat. He was present at the First Continental Congress, the Declaration of Independence, the signing of the Treaty of Paris and the Constitutional Convention Benjamin Franklin Home

34 27 a Patriot, lawyer, Vice President and President, he believed in the rule of law and defended soldiers of the Boston Massacre. John Adams Home

35 28 a Boston silversmith, member of the Sons of Liberty, and messenger at the start of the Revolutionary War. Paul Revere Home

36 29 the dumping of 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor by colonists in 1773 to protest the Tea Act. Boston Tea Party Home

37 30 a force of armed civilians pledged to defend their community during the American Revolution; an emergency military force that is not part of the regular army. Militia Home

38 31 sites in Massachusetts of the first battles of the American Revolution. Lexington and Concord Home

39 32 an American colonist who supported the British in the American Revolution Loyalist Home

40 33 the document, written in 1776, in which the colonies declared independence from Britain. Declaration of Independence Home

41 34 Author of the Declaration of Independence, 3 rd President of the United States, responsible for the Louisiana Purchase and Lewis and Clark Expeditions Thomas Jefferson Home

42 35 General of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, he was the 1 st President of the United States elected in George Washington Home

43 36 a series of conflicts between British soldiers and the Continental Army in 1777 that proved to be a turning point in the Revolutionary War, after the Continental Army victory French agreed to support the colonies. Battles of Saratoga Home

44 37 The most famous naval officer of the Revolutionary War, he commanded the Bonhomme Richard in a battle against the British vessel the Serapis, in which he sunk the Bonhomme Richard and sailed off in the Serapis. He is known as the father of the American Navy John Paul Jones Home

45 38 The last major battle of the Revolutionary War, which resulted in Lord Cornwallis surrender of British forces in Battle of Yorktown Home

46 39 the treaty that ended the Revolutionary War, confirming the independence of the United States and setting the boundaries of the new nation Treaty of Paris of 1783 Home

47 40 the belief that government should be based on the consent of the people; people exercise their power by voting for political representatives Republicanism Home

48 41 a government in which people elect representatives to govern for them. Republic Home

49 42 a document adopted by the Continental Congress in 1777 and finally approved by the states in 1781, which outlined the form of government of the new United States. Articles of Confederation Home

50 43 it described how the Northwest Territory was to be governed and set conditions for settlement and settlers rights. Northwest Ordinance Home

51 44 an uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers in Shays Rebellion Home

52 45 a meeting held in 1787 to consider changes to the Articles of Confederation; resulted in the drafting of the Constitution Constitutional Convention Home

53 46 considered to be the Father of the Constitution, our 4 th President he was in office during the war of James Madison Home

54 47 the Constitutional Conventions agreement to establish a two-house national legislature, with all states having equal representation in one house and each state having representation based on its population in the other house. Great Compromise Home

55 48 supporter for the ratification of the Constitution. Federalist Home

56 49 Secretary of Treasury under Pres. Washington, he is credited with creating our current financial system. He was shot and killed by Aaron Burr in a dual. Alexander Hamilton Home

57 50 an influential Virginian during the Revolutionary Era, he opposed the signing of the Constitution until it contained a Bill of Rights. George Mason Home

58 51 the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, added in 1791, and consisting of a formal list of citizens rights and freedoms Bill of Rights Home

59 52 a tax on imported goods Tariff Home

60 53 a 1794 protest against the governments tax on whiskey, which was valuable to the livelihood of backcountry farmers Whiskey Rebellion Home

61 54 A policy governing our relations with the governments of other countries. Foreign policy Home

62 55 a series of four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrants to the United States Alien and Sedition Acts Home

63 56 theory that said that states had the right to judge when the federal government had passed an unconstitutional law States rights Home

64 57 an 1803 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that it had the power to abolish laws by declaring them unconstitutional Marbury v. Madison Home

65 58 the principle that the Supreme Court has the final say in interpreting the Constitution. Judicial review Home

66 59 The 3rd Vice President of the United States, he is largely known for his political rivalry with Alexander Hamilton which led to a duel and eventually Hamiltons death. He would later be tried for treason in a conspiracy to steal a portion of the Louisiana Purchase and crown himself king of his own new empire Aaron Burr Home

67 60 Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, he upheld federal authority and strengthened federal courts, one of the most important decisions of the Supreme Court during his leadership was Marbury v. Madison John Marshall Home

68 61 the 1803 purchase of millions of acres of land west of the Mississippi River from France. The purchase was authorized by Thomas Jefferson. Louisiana Purchase Home

69 62 a group who explored the lands of the Louisiana Purchase beginning in 1803 Lewis and Clark expedition Home

70 63 treaty, signed in 1814, which ended the War of 1812; no territory exchanged hands and trade disputes were not resolved Treaty of Ghent Home

71 64 an act that stated that American ships were no longer allowed to sail to foreign ports, and it also closed American ports to British ships Embargo Act of 1807 Home

72 65 National Anthem of the United States of America, words written by Francis Scott Key Star Spangled Banner Home

73 66 in late 18th-century Britain, factory machines began replacing hand tools and manufacturing replaced farming as the main form of work Industrial Revolution Home

74 67 innovator of the interchangeable part gun and inventor of the cotton gin, a machine built in 1793 that cleaned cotton much faster and far more efficiently than human workers. Eli Whitney Home

75 68 a machine invented in 1793 that cleaned cotton much faster and far more efficiently than human workers Cotton gin Home

76 69 led a rebellion of slaves in 1831, he was an enthusiastic preacher who believed God wanted him to free all slaves even by use of force Nat Turner Home

77 70 a feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward ones country Nationalism Home

78 71 the placing of the interests of ones own region ahead of the interests of the nation as a whole. Sectionalism Home

79 72 a series of laws enacted in 1820 to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states Missouri Compromise Home

80 73 a policy of U.S. opposition to any European interference in the Western Hemisphere, announced in 1823 Monroe Doctrine Home

81 74 Became President because of what some called a Corrupt Bargain, he was Secretary of State under James Monroe, and the first son of a former President to become President John Quincy Adams Home

82 75 the idea of spreading political power to all the people, thereby ensuring majority rule Jacksonian Democracy Home

83 76 National War Hero from the Battle of New Orleans, he was the 7th President, his policies towards Native Americans are renowned for their cruelty, he was responsible for the Trail of Tears Andrew Jackson Home

84 77 the practice of winning candidates giving government jobs to political backers or supporters. Spoils system Home

85 78 this 1830 act called for the government to negotiate treaties that would require Native Americans to relocate west Indian Removal Act Home

86 79 the tragic journey of the Cherokee people from their homeland to Indian Territory between 1838 and 1839; thousands of Cherokee died Trail of Tears Home

87 80 Withdrawal in this case by Southern States from the Union. Secession Home

88 81 an increase in the price of goods and services and a decrease in the value of money. Inflation Home

89 82 a severe economic slump over a long period of time Depression Home

90 83 a political party organized in 1834 to oppose the policies of Andrew Jackson Whig Party Home

91 84 a trail that ran westward from Independence, Missouri, to the Northwest United States. Many settlers followed this trail in hopes of new economic opportunities Oregon Trail Home

92 85 persuaded the Mexican government to allow him to start a colony which would later be Texas Stephen Austin Home

93 86 the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean Manifest destiny Home

94 87 President who believed in Manifest Destiny, he initiated the annexation of Texas, California, New Mexico and settled the border dispute over the Oregon Territory with Britain. 11th President of the U.S. James K. Polk Home

95 88 12th President of the U.S. he was a war hero from the Mexican -American War, he opposed the expansion of slavery and proposed California apply for statehood without becoming a territory Zachary Taylor Home

96 89 a vast region given up by Mexico after the War with Mexico; it included the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming. Mexican Cession Home

97 90 a person who went to California to find gold, starting in Forty-niner Home

98 91 Starting around 1849, large numbers of people moved to California in search of wealth. California gold rush Home

99 92 a person who settles in a new country. Immigrant Home

100 93 peacefully refusing to obey laws one considers unjust Civil disobedience Home

101 94 a group of workers who band together to seek better working conditions. Labor union Home

102 95 the movement to end slavery Abolition Home

103 96 a series of escape routes used by slaves escaping the South. Underground Railroad Home

104 97 a womens rights convention held in New York, in Called for womens right to vote, Lucretia Mott, Fredrick Douglas and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were the featured guests Seneca Falls Convention Home

105 98 the right to vote. Suffrage Home

106 99 an 1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico Wilmot Proviso Home

107 100 a series of Congressional laws intended to settle the major disagreements between free states and slave states such as admitting California as a state and passing fugitive slave laws. Compromise of 1850 Home

108 101 a novel published by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852 that portrayed slavery as brutal and immoral Uncle Toms Cabin Home

109 102 an abolitionist, he was a runaway slave that escaped to the North, eventually he wrote several books while in Europe. He purchased his own freedom upon his return to the U.S. Pleaded with President Lincoln to emancipate all slaves in America during the Civil War Frederick Douglas Home

110 103 an education reformer, he called education the great equalizer, and pushed for public education for all children Horace Mann Home

111 104 a proponent of womens rights, she held the Seneca Falls Convention, and fought for womens suffrage, or right to vote Elizabeth Cady Stanton Home

112 105 a famous conductor in the Underground Railroad, she made as many as 19 trips into the south to rescue slaves, she also served as a spy for the Union Army. Harriet Tubman Home

113 106 a system in which the residents vote to decide an issue Popular sovereignty Home

114 107 an 1854 law that established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and gave their residents the right to decide whether to allow slavery Kansas-Nebraska Act Home

115 108 an abolitionist, he fought slave owners at Bleeding Kansas and also is responsible for the attack at Harpers Ferry where he attempted to create a slave revolt throughout the South John Brown Home

116 109 the newly formed Republican Party nominee in He carried 11 states in the North, proving the nation was strongly divided over slavery and the Republican Party was force. John C. Fremont Home

117 110 Powerful Democratic Senator from Illinois, he defeated Abraham Lincoln for his Senate seat in 1858 but lost to Lincoln during the Presidential Election of 1860, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and strong proponent of popular sovereignty. Stephen A. Douglas Home

118 111 an 1856 Supreme Court case in which a slave sued for his freedom because he had been taken to live in territories where slavery was illegal; the Court ruled against him. Dred Scott v. Sandford Home

119 112 the confederation formed in 1861 by the Southern states after their secession from the Union Confederate States of America Home

120 113 16th President of the U.S., he opposed the secession of southern states, issued the Emancipation Proclamation, and was assassinated on April 15, Abraham Lincoln Home

121 114 President of the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis Home

122 115 a federal fort located in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the Southern attack on this fort marked the beginning of the Civil War. Fort Sumter Home

123 116 former U.S. officer, he became the General of the Confederate Virginian Army, he opposed secession and slavery. His land became the sight for the Arlington National Cemetery Robert E. Lee Home

124 117 Considered to be a poor student, and unorganized. He was a hero of the Civil War because he fought no matter what the expense. He led the Union Army to victory during the Civil War. He was the 18th President of the U.S. his presidency was marred by corruption. Ulysses S. Grant Home

125 118 a slave state that bordered states in which slavery was illegal Border state Home

126 119 an 1862 battle in which the Union forced the Confederacy to retreat in some of the fiercest fighting in the Civil War. Battle of Shiloh Home

127 120 a Civil War battle on Sept. 17, 1862 in which 25,000 men were killed or wounded it is the bloodiest day in all of American History. Battle of Antietam Home

128 121 an executive order issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, freeing the slaves in all regions in rebellion against the Union. Emancipation Proclamation Home

129 122 one of the first African-American regiments organized to fight for the Union in the Civil War. 54th Massachusetts Regiment Home

130 123 a law that required men to serve in the military or be drafted Conscription Home

131 124 an 1863 battle in the Civil War in which the Union defeated the Confederacy after the failed charge by Maj. Gen. Picket, ending hopes for a Confederate victory in the North. President Lincoln later dedicated a cemetery to those who had fallen in the battle. Battle of Gettysburg Home

132 125 A U.S. General of the Civil War, he staged total war, breaking the will of Southerners during his march to the Atlantic Ocean William Tecumseh Sherman Home

133 126 the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War Appomattox Court House Home

134 127 an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1865, banning slavery and involuntary servitude in the United States Thirteenth Amendment Home

135 128 the process the U.S. government used to readmit the Confederate states to the Union after the Civil War. Reconstruction Home

136 129 17th President following Lincolns assassination, he is one of only two presidents to have been impeached. His handling of the Reconstruction has led many to believe his presidency was a failure Andrew Johnson Home

137 130 a law passed by Southern states that limited the freedom of former slaves Black code Home

138 131 rights granted to all citizens Civil rights Home

139 132 an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, passed in 1868, that made all persons born or naturalized in the United Statesincluding former slavescitizens of the country Fourteenth Amendment Home

140 133 a system in which landowners gave farm workers land, seed, and tools in return for a part of the crops they raised Sharecropping Home

141 134 passed in 1870, this amendment to the U.S. Constitution stated that citizens could not be stopped from voting on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Fifteenth Amendment Home

142 135 the agreement that resolved an 1876 election dispute: Republican, Rutherford B. Hayes became president and then removed the last federal troops from the South Compromise of 1877 Home

143 136 land set aside by the U.S. government for Native American tribes Reservation Home

144 137 an 1876 battle in which the Sioux and the Cheyenne wiped out an entire force of U.S. troops Battle of the Little Bighorn Home

145 138 Sioux Indian Chief who along with Crazy Horse, united his people to push back White Settlers who intruded on their land. He was arrested and killed prior to the Wounded Knee Massacre where the rest of his people would be killed Sitting Bull Home

146 139 passed in 1862, this law offered160 acres of land free to anyone who agreed to live on and improve the land for five years Homestead Act Home

147 140 a railroad that spanned the entire continent Transcontinental railroad Home

148 141 a millionaire who earned his fortune from his monopoly on the oil industry, he developed a trust called the Standard Oil Trust Co.; he gave much of his money away to charities and foundations John D. Rockefeller Home

149 142 a Scottish immigrant he made his fortune through control of the Steel Industry. He controlled every process in the steel industry from mining to shipping. He once said A man who dies rich dies disgraced. He gave to charities and created many libraries across the U.S Andrew Carnegie Home

150 143 in 1886, a union protest resulted in about 100 dead after an unknown person threw a bomb, and police opened fire on the crowd. Haymarket affair Home

151 144 a nationwide railway strike that spread throughout the rail industry in 1894 Pullman Strike Home

152 145 a national organization of labor unions founded in 1886 American Federation of Labor (AFL) Home

153 146 growth of cities resulting from industrialization Urbanization Home

154 147 was a founder of the U.S. Settlement House Movement (ex. Hull House) and a Recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. She fought for improvements in peoples living conditions in urban areas Jane Addams Home

155 148 the first stop in the United States for most immigrants coming from Europe Ellis Island Home

156 149 the process of blending into society Assimilation Home

157 150 laws meant to enforce separation of white and black people in public places in the South Jim Crow Home

158 151 an 1896 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal Plessy v. Ferguson Home

159 152 founder of the NAACP, he encouraged blacks to reject segregation and believed that equality would be won through political means not economical means. W.E.B. Du Bois (William Edward Burghardt Du Bois) Home

160 153 an African American rights leader he believed that African Americans would win rights through economical means, and could be segregated from whites. He believed in a vocational and practical education benefited blacks more than a liberal arts education. Booker T. Washington Home

161 154 an early 20th-century reform movement seeking to return control of the government to the people, to restore economic opportunities, and to correct injustices in American life Progressivism Home

162 155 when a proposed law is submitted to a vote of the people Referendum Home

163 156 26th President of the U.S., he is the youngest serving president. A former Spanish-American War hero, he proposed many progressive reforms such as his Square Deal. He later ran for president under the Bull Moose Party. He is also well known for his wildlife conservation efforts Theodore Roosevelt Home

164 157 a progressive President, the 27th of the U.S., he won passage of the 16th and 17th amendments. He was the only former President to have served on the Supreme Court, he was appointed Chief Justice in 1921, it was his lifelong dream. William Howard Taft Home

165 158 an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1913, that gave Congress the power to create income taxes Sixteenth Amendment Home

166 159 an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1913, that provided for the direct election of U.S. senators Seventeenth Amendment Home

167 160 womens rights supporter, she pushed for womens suffrage and was President of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) Susan B. Anthony Home

168 161 an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1920, which gave women full voting rights Nineteenth Amendment Home

169 162 the policy by which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker nations or territories Imperialism Home

170 163 a war in 1898 that began when the United States demanded Cubas independence from Spain. Spanish-American War Home

171 164 in 1899, the United States asked nations involved in Asia to follow a policy in which no one country controlled trade with China Open Door Policy Home

172 165 a 1904 addition to the Monroe Doctrine allowing the United States to be the policeman in Latin America. Roosevelt Corollary Home

173 166 the belief that a nation needs a large military force Militarism Home

174 167 an alliance of Serbia, Russia, France, Great Britain, Italy, and seven other countries during World War I. Allies Home

175 168 a kind of warfare during World War I in which troops huddled at the bottom of trenches and fired artillery and machine guns at each other. Trench warfare Home

176 169 a message sent in 1917 by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing a German-Mexican alliance and promising to help Mexico regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if the United States entered World War I. Zimmermann telegram n. Home

177 170 the American Expeditionary Force, U.S. forces during World War I. AEF Home

178 171 an opinion expressed for the purpose of influencing the actions of others Propaganda Home

179 172 the 1919 treaty that ended World War I. Treaty of Versailles Home

180 173 in 1919–1920, a wave of panic from fear of a Communist revolution Red Scare Home

181 174 a person who believed that the United States should stay out of other nations affairs except in self- defense. Isolationist Home

182 175 in 1928, this pact was signed by many nations who pledged not to make war against each other except in self- defense. Kellogg-Briand Pact Home

183 176 formed in 1909 under the leadership of W.E.B. DuBois, it is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights groups in the U.S. Its mission is "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination". NAACP Home

184 177 a person who believes in a literal, or word-for-word, interpretation of the bible. Fundamentalist Home

185 178 31st President of the U.S., he was president during the beginning of the Great Depression, his lack of government intervention and later rise in taxes and cuts in spending prolonged the economic depression. Herbert Hoover Home

186 179 the plunge in stock market prices beginning the Great Depression. Crash of 1929 Home

187 180 a period, lasting from 1929 to 1941, in which the U.S. economy was in severe decline and millions of Americans were unemployed. Great Depression Home

188 181 32nd President of the U.S., he is credited with helping the U.S. win WW II, end the Great Depression, and is the only person to be elected to 4 consecutive terms as President Franklin Delano Roosevelt Home

189 182 President Franklin Roosevelts programs to fight the Great Depression New Deal Home

190 183 to use borrowed money to fund government programs. Deficit spending Home

191 184 the area of dust-damaged farms across a 150,000-square-mile region during the early 1930s Dust bowl Home

192 185 a person who favors government action to bring about social and economic reform. Liberal Home

193 186 a person who favors fewer government controls and more individual freedom in economic matters Conservative Home

194 187 Leader of Nazi Germany during WW II, he gained power by promoting German nationalism and racial superiority Adolf Hitler Home

195 188 a naval base in Hawaii that was hit in a surprise attack by Japan on December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor Home

196 189 General of Allied forces in Europe, architect of the D-Day invasion and WW II hero, he became the 34th President of the U.S., one of his major initiatives as President was the Highway Act of 1956 Dwight D. Eisenhower Home

197 190 June 6, 1944, the day the Allies invaded France during World War II. D-Day Home

198 191 the systematic killing by Germany during World War II of about six million Jews as well as millions from other ethnic groups Holocaust Home

199 192 a victory for the United States over the Japanese in a 1942 naval battle that was a turning point of World War II, after this battle the Japanese were on the defensive and the Allies on the offensive Battle of Midway Home

200 193 the first city in Japan that was hit by an atomic bomb on August 6, 1945 killing nearly 150,000 people Hiroshima Home

201 194 33rd President of the U.S., he gave the order to use Atomic Weapons against Japan, he also proposed the Fair Deal, to create housing, jobs, and end racial discrimination Harry S. Truman Home

202 195 approved in 1948, the United States gave more than $13 billion to help the nations of Europe after World War II. Marshall Plan Home

203 196 passed in 1944, this bill provided educational and economic help to veterans G.I. Bill of Rights Home

204 197 the court proceedings held after World War II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for war crimes and their involvement in the Holocaust. Nuremberg Trials Home

205 198 the state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II. Cold War Home

206 199 a policy that promised aid to people struggling to resist threats to democratic freedom. Truman Doctrine Home

207 200 a military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European countries, the United States, and Canada NATO or North Atlantic Treaty Organization Home

208 201 a conflict between North Korea and South Korea, lasting from 1950 to 1953; the United States, along with other UN countries, fought on the side of the South Koreans, and China fought on the side of the North Koreans Korean War Home

209 202 a 1954 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that separate but equal education for black and white students was unconstitutional. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas n. Home

210 203 in 1955, African Americans boycotted the public buses in Montgomery, Alabama, in response to the arrest of Rosa Parks, who refused to give up her seat to a white person Montgomery bus boycott Home

211 204 Civil Rights activist who came to prominence during the Montgomery Bus Boycott, he also was a leader during the Birmingham Protests, Speaker at the March on Washington, and was assassinated in Memphis, TN Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Home

212 205 a huge civil rights demonstration in Washington, D.C., in March on Washington n. Home

213 206 this act banned segregation in public places and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Civil Rights Act of 1964 Home

214 207 this law banned literacy tests and other laws that kept African Americans from registering to vote. Voting Rights Act of 1965 Home

215 208 a program started by President Lyndon Johnson that provided help to the poor, the elderly, and women, and also promoted education and outlawed discrimination. Great Society Home

216 209 A revolutionary leader who united Communist factions in Vietnam during WW II, he would later be the Communist Vietnamese leader fighting against France and the United States. Ho Chi Minh Home

217 210 a theory stating that if a country fell to communism, nearby countries would also fall to communism Domino theory Home

218 211 a Vietnamese Communist Viet Cong Home

219 212 in 1968, a surprise attack by the Viet Cong on U.S. military bases and more than 100 cities and towns in South Vietnam during Tet, the Vietnamese celebration of the lunar New Year Tet Offensive Home

220 213 35th President of the U.S., he is the only Catholic President, and the youngest elected President. His term as President is well known for the beginning of the space race, Civil Rights movement (including the March on Washington) and the Vietnam War. He was assassinated in Dallas, TX on Nov. 22, John F. Kennedy Home

221 214 36th President of the U.S., during his tenure in office the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 were passed, the Vietnam War was escalated, and his federal program called the Great Society was passed to help the disenfranchised, elderly, poor, and women. Lyndon B. Johnson Home

222 215 an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1971 and lowering the voting age from 21 to 18 Twenty-sixth Amendment Home

223 216 37th President of the U.S., during his tenure in office the Vietnam War was coming to a close, we landed on the Moon, he is best known for the Watergate Scandal and being the only President to have resigned from office Richard M. Nixon Home

224 217 a scandal resulting from the Nixon administrations attempt to cover up its involvement in the 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C Watergate scandal Home

225 218 in 1979, under these agreements, Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty that ended 30 years of conflict Camp David Accords Home

226 219 in 1986, the U.S. government sold weapons to Iran for help in freeing American hostages in the Middle East, and the money from the sale went to the Contra rebels in El Salvador Iran-Contra affair Home

227 220 40th President of the U.S. and oldest to have served. He ended the high inflation of the 1970s and 80s with an economic policy called supply-side economics. He took a tough anti-communist stand which may have contributed to the end of the Cold War. Often a hands off President, the Iran-Contra Affair took place under his watch Ronald Reagan Home

228 221 the idea that lowering taxes will lead to increases in jobs, savings, investments, and so lead to an increase in government revenue Supply-side economics Home

229 222 on November 4, 1979, a group of Iranians overran the American embassy in Irans capital of Tehran and took 52 Americans hostage Iran hostage crisis Home

230 223 41st President of the U.S., Communism fell in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union collapsed during his presidency. During his term in office the U.S. fought the Persian Gulf War with a coalition of forces George H.W. Bush Home

231 224 in 1990–1991, the United States and the UN drove Iraq out of Kuwait, a country the Iraqis had invaded in 1990 Persian Gulf War Home

232 225 42nd President of the U.S., he is well known for passing the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) which lifted tariffs creating a global economy, fighting a war in Kosovo, and for a scandal which led to his impeachment, only the second in U.S. history. Bill Clinton Home

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