2 Timeline: What’s Going On? United States:1898 – The Spanish American War Begins1914 – The Panama Canal opens1917 – The United States enters WW IWorld:Technology is developed for the modern radio.1910 – The Mexican Revolution begins1914 – WW I Begins in Europe
3 Section 1:Targets By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Explain the economic and cultural factors that fueled the growth of American imperialism.2. Describe how the United States acquired Alaska.3. Summarize how the United States took over the Hawaiian Islands.
4 Section 1: Imperialism and America Main Idea: Beginning in 1867 and continuing through the century, global competition caused the United States to expand.Why it Matters Now: During this time period, the United States acquired Hawaii and Alaska, both of which became states in 1959.Key Terms:ImperialismPearl HarborKey Names:Queen LiliuokalaniAlfred T. MahanWilliam SewardSanford B. Dole
5 Imperialism and America: Throughout the 19th century America expanded control of the continent to the Pacific OceanBy 1880, many American leaders felt the U.S. should join European nations and establish colonies overseasThus began America’s foray intoImperialism – the policy in which stronger nations extend control over weaker nationsThis was becoming the trend around the world.
6 Why Would A Country Believe in Imperialism? Part 1 1) Desire for Military strengthDefend peace time shipping lanesDevelop strategic bases for re-fuelingAlfred T. Mahan (US Naval Admiral) encouraged imperialism for this reason!
7 Why Would A Country Believe in Imperialism? Part 2 2) Thirst for new markets– to spur economy & tradeUnited States was producing far more than they needed. (time to export)
8 Why Would A Country Believe in Imperialism? Part 3 3) Belief in Cultural Superiority– a belief that Anglo-Saxons were superiorMany Americans believed that the US had a responsibility to spread Christianity and “civilization” to the world’s “inferior peoples”
9 Anti-Imperialism*Some Americans felt that expanding into foreign territory would threaten Anglo-Saxon superiority*Others felt it was morally wrong to dominate weaker nations
10 Desire for military strength Thirst for new markets Which of the three ideas do you think is the biggest reason why a country would want to become imperialistic?Desire for military strengthThirst for new marketsBelief in cultural superiority
11 The US Acquires Alaska: In 1867, Secretary of State William Seward arranged for the United States to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 millionSome thought it was a silly idea and called it “Seward’s Icebox”Time has shown how smart it was to buy Alaska for 2 cents an acreAlaska is rich in timber, minerals and oil
12 The US Takes Hawaii:Hawaii had been economically important to Americans for centuries (Sugar Plantations owned by Americans made up ¾ of the island’s wealth)To avoid import taxes (tariffs), sugar growers pleaded for annexation
13 Hawaii: Part 2Queen Liluokalani (Lil-e-oh-luke-a-lani) wanted to change the constitution so that non-landowners could vote (Would have returned political power to Native Hawaiians)January 16, 1893, USS Boston surrounded Honolulu Harbor and eventually would imprison the Queen in her mansionShe was originally sentenced five years of hard labor in prison by a military tribunalSanford Dole became “President”President McKinley officially annexed (to join a territory) Hawaii on August 12, 1898
14 This is how I feel about how the U.S. acquired Hawaii: I think they were right to acquire Hawaii the way they didI can understand why, but don’t agree with how they did itI don’t agree at all how they acquired Hawaii
15 Did We Meet Our Targets: Can You:1. Explain the economic and cultural factors that fueled the growth of American imperialism.2. Describe how the United States acquired Alaska.3. Summarize how the United States took over the Hawaiian Islands.
16 Spanish-American War PREVIEW “No man’s life, no man’s property is safe (in Cuba). American citizens are imprisoned or slain without cause. American property is destroyed on all sides…Wounded soldiers can be found begging in the streets of Havana…Cuba will soon be a wilderness of blackened ruins. The horrors of a barbarous struggle for the extermination of the native population are witnessed in all pars of the country. Blood on the roadsides, blood in the fields, blood on the doorsteps, blood, blood, blood! The old, the young, the weak, the crippled-all are butchered without mercy…is there no nation wise enough, brave enough to aid this blood-smitten land?”
17 Section 2: Targets By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Contrast American opinions regarding the Cuban revolt against Spain.2. Identify events that escalated the conflict between the United States and Spain.3. Trace the course of the Spanish-American War and its results
18 Section 2: The Spanish American War Main Idea: In 1898, the United States went to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain.Why it Matters Now: US involvement in Latin America and Asia increased greatly as a result of the war and continues today.Key Terms:Yellow JournalismU.S.S. MaineRough RidersSan Juan HillTreaty of ParisKey Names:Jose MartiValeriano WeylerGeorge Dewey
19 The Spanish American War: America had long held an interest in CubaWhen Cubans unsuccessfully rebelled against Spanish rule in the late 19th century, American sympathy went out to the Cuban peopleAfter Spain abolished slavery in Cuba in 1886, Americans invested millions in Cuban sugar
20 Cuba’s Second War for Independence: Anti-Spain sentiment in Cuba soon erupted into a second war for independence (1st war was from )Led by poet Jose Marti, Cuba attempted a revolution in 1895Marti deliberately destroyed property, including American sugar plants, hoping to provoke American intervention
21 The Spanish Response1896: The Spanish responded to the Cuban Rebels by…GUERILLA WARFARE!Led byValeriano Weyler, (Spanish General) surprise attacks devastated towns and citizens were forced into concentration camps300,000 people died in these camps from disease and hunger
22 War Fever Escalates:Newspaper publishers William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) and Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) exaggerated Spanish atrocities and brutality in “Headline Wars”This was called Yellow Journalism:
23 De Lome letterMany Americans sympathized with Cubans…and demanded President McKinley do something!He tried to peacefully negotiate a solution…SO Enrique De Lome (Spanish Minister in US) wrote an infamous letter calling McKinley “weak” and “a bidder for admiration of the crowd!” (FIGHTING WORDS!!)Teddy Roosevelt (his assistant secretary to the Navy) also claimed that McKinley had “no more backbone than an éclair”
24 U.S.S. Maine Explodes!Early in 1888, President McKinley ordered the U.S.S. Maine to Cuba in order to bring home American citizens in danger and protect US property in Cuba (SOUND FAMILIAR?)On February 15, 1898 the ship blew up in the harbor of HavanaMore than 260 men were killedIt was later determined to be an internal problem…but damage was done! War must be declared!!
25 War Erupts With Spain:There was no holding back those that wanted war with SpainNewspapers blamed the Spanish for bombing the U.S.S. MaineRecent investigations have shown it was a fire inside the Maine“Remember the Maine!” became a rallying cry for U.S. intervention in Cuba
26 The War in the Caribbean: A naval blockade of Cuba was followed by a land invasion highlighted by Roosevelt’s Rough Rider victory at San Juan Hill (Remember Teddy’s the One!)Next, the American Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet and paved the way for an invasion of Puerto Rico (Spanish colony)
27 San Juan HillJune of 1898, US forces began landing in Cuba and headed towards SantiagoThese forces included four African-American regiments and the Rough Riders (volunteers)The strategic location that needed to be overtaken by the US was San Juan Hill. The story is that the Rough Riders charged that hill…but apparently they only had a minor role. (History Mystery)
28 US Wins: Signs Treaty of Paris The Spanish surrender in July of 1898The U.S. and Spain signed an armistice on August 12, 1898, ending what Secretary of State John Hay called “a splendid little war”The war lasted only 16 weeksCuba was now independentU.S. receives Guam, Puerto Rico, and “bought” the Philippines for $20 million
29 The Results of the War Imperialism…the central issue. McKinley responded to the critics of the treaty by claiming that his prayers guided him to civilize and Christianize all our newly acquired territories. (Filipinos and been Christian for centuries)Many felt it violated the Declaration of Independence
30 Section 3: Targets By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Describe the US involvement in Puerto Rico and in Cuba.2. Identify the causes and effects of the Philippine-American War.3. Explain the purpose of the Open Door Policy in China.4. Summarize the views regarding US imperialism.
31 Section 3: Acquiring New Lands Main Idea: In the early 1900’s, the United States engaged in conflicts in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines.Why it Matters Now: Today, the United States maintains a strong military and political presence in strategic worldwide locations.Key Terms:Foraker ActPlatt AmendmentProtectorateOpen Door NotesBoxer RebellionKey Names:Emilio AguinaldoJohn Hay
32 Acquiring New Lands: The U.S had to decide how to rule the new lands Puerto Rico wanted their independence– but the U.S. had other plansPuerto Rico was important to the U.S. strategicallyForaker Act - The U.S. set up a civil government and gave US President right to appoint governor and members of upper house of congress1917:Puerto Ricans became US Citizens
33 Cuba And The United States: The Treaty of Paris granted full independence to CubaThe U.S signed an agreement with Cuba known as the Platt Amendment 1903Key features of “Platt” included1. The right of the U.S. to maintain naval stations on the island and2. The right to intervene in Cuban affairsCuba had become a “protectorate” of the U.S.
34 Foreign Influence on China: China was a vast potential market for American productsWeakened by war and foreign intervention, many European countries had colonized in ChinaIn 1889, John Hay, U.S. Secretary of State, issued the Open Door Policy which outlined his plan for free trade among nations in China
35 Boxer Rebellion: European nations dominated China’s cities Resentment arose in the form of secret societies determined to rid China of these “foreign devils”The Boxer’s were a secret group that rioted in 1900, killing and vandalizing all things foreignForeign Troops were called in to put down this “Boxer Rebellion”
36 Americans Protect Rights in Asia: After the Boxer Rebellion, John Hay again issued a series of Open Door PoliciesThese policies reflected American beliefs in:1. the importance of exports2. the right of America to intervene to keep foreign markets open3. the belief that America’s survival depended on access to foreign markets
37 Did We Meet our Objectives? Can You:1. Describe the US involvement in Puerto Rico and in Cuba.2. Identify the causes and effects of the Philippine-American War.3. Explain the purpose of the Open Door Policy in China.4. Summarize the views regarding US imperialism.
38 Section 4: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Explain how Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy promoted American power around the world.
39 Section 4: America as a World Power Main Idea: The Russo-Japanese War, the Panama Canal, and the Mexican Revolution added to America’s military and economic power.Why it Matters Now: American involvement in conflicts around 1900 led to involvement in WW I and later to a peacekeeper role in today’s world.Key Terms:Panama CanalRoosevelt CorollaryDollar Diplomacy
40 America As A World Power: Two events signaled America’s continued climb toward being the #1 world power1) Roosevelt negotiated a settlement between Russia and Japan who had been at War – his successful efforts in negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth won Roosevelt the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize2) Construction of Panama Canal
41 The Panama Canal:By the early 20th century, many Americans understood the advantages of a canal through PanamaIt would greatly reduce travel times for commercial and military ships by providing a short cut between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans
42 Building the Panama Canal: 1904-1914 The French had already unsuccessfully attempted to build a canal through PanamaAmerica first had to help Panama win their independence from Colombia – which it didConstruction of the Canal stands as one of the greatest engineering feats of all-timeCost- $380 million Workers– Over 40,000 (5,600 died) Time – Construction took 10 years
43 Building the Canal In 1903, Panama was territory of Columbia The US backed a Panamanian rebellion against Columbia backed with 12 US warshipsWithin weeks The US and Panama struck a deal that allowed the US to build the canal (Panama gets 10 million plus $250,000 a year rent)Colombia is SALTY and we pay them 25 million in 1921
44 Struggles Building the Canal Disease was rampant while building the canal (Yellow Fever, Bubonic Plague, Dysentery, and Malaria)Inadequate housing (Houses covered in mold and guano)The work was painstakingly slowMosquito Spraying
46 The Roosevelt Corollary: In 1904, President Roosevelt added the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.Monroe Doctrine (1823 that stated US did not want European influence in South AmericaThe Roosevelt Corollary said that the US would now use force to protect it’s economic interests in Latin America.Roosevelt coined the phrase “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far” during this time. (Gunboat Diplomacy)
47 Dollar DiplomacyJust like other nations in the world that were practicing imperialism, the US was nervous that other nations would become more powerful. Many Latin American countries were heavily indebted to European banksDollar Diplomacy –US government loans made to foreign countries (favors) to pay off debtThis allowed us to control others things though (taxes on import and exports)This helped keep European powers out of the Caribbean because they had US backing.
48 Sum it All Up: What Did America Accomplish During This Time Period? 1. Expanded it access to foreign markets in order to ensure the continued growth of the domestic economy.2. Built a modern Navy to protect its interests abroad.3. Exercised its international police power to ensure dominance in Latin America.
49 Did We Meet All Of Our Objectives? Can You:1. Explain how Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy promoted American power around the world.