Presentation on theme: "Native Americans in Washington State. Define “Indian” Hard to do; most tribes have different requirements Generally speaking, need to have some Indian."— Presentation transcript:
Define “Indian” Hard to do; most tribes have different requirements Generally speaking, need to have some Indian blood and be recognized by community as an Indian Legally, needs to be a federally recognized tribe. Christopher Columbus gave Indians their name from en dios meaning “people of god”
The First “Indians” Came to our area 14,000 years ago. Traveled South from Alaska across the land bridge which was across the Bering Strait (it is now covered with water) Some groups moved to the Western part of the state while others moved to the East. These groups were referred to as the “Coastal” and the “Plateau” Native Americans.
Lifestyles of the Coastal Indians How did geography affect the lives of these people? – Mild climate – Near water with plentiful amounts of food. – Smaller tribes, numerous tribes separated by forests, mountains, and waterways. Example: Makah, Puyallup, and Chinook. – Lived in villages and rarely made contact with other tribes.
The Hierarchy of Coastal Tribes Each tribe had a leader called a “Chief” = the wealthiest person of the tribe (our chief would now be Bill Gates ) = family are the nobles. – Commoners were the class below and the slave class was at the bottom of the hierarchy. The shaman or medicine man was the spiritual leader.
Everyday life of Coastal N.A. Had a spoken language but not a written one. Communicated through signs, smoke signals, and totem poles. Clothing was mostly made from cedar bark and varied from dresses to leggings and moccasins. Also wore cone shaped hats to protect from the rain.
Photograph text: Memorial poles 15558a and 15558b can be seen on either side of the mortuary pole in the centre of the picture. http://www.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/totems/totems1b.html
Potlatches= social occasions given by a host to establish or uphold his status position in society. – Beautiful blankets and masks were created to wear for the festivities. Most Coastal N.A. ate fish (salmon), seafood, berries, and wild fruit.
Material Progress Ornamental as well as practical clothing Complex permanent and semi-permanent dwellings – Cedar longhouse and tule mat houses (video)
Plateau Native Americans Geography – Larger tribes who lived in very large areas. – Hot and dry in the summer and cold and snowy in the winter. Harsh climate. – Food and water were scarce – They were NOMADS= tribes that traveled in search of their food. = Did not have permanent shelter (teepees) nor permanent safety.
Plateau Tribal Organization Due to the large number of people in the tribe their were Chiefs, a tribal council, and a Council of Elders. Respect came from bravery and courage NOT from wealth. Life was a community effort and every member had a role.
Lifestyles of the Plateau Clothes = Animal pelts, leather moccasins, leather leggings, and dresses. Food was scarce and the resources were competitive. Hunting grounds and water sources could cause conflict. Besides meat, hunting and gathering and salmon from rivers were also important foods.
Language Difficult due to communicate. Spoken but did not have a written language. Over 100 dialects in Washington alone! video
What are the similarities and differences? I usually follow the herds around for food? I live in permanent houses and rarely move? The Shaman is the religious leader of our village? I am chief because I am the wealthiest member? I am chief because I am brave and courageous? My clothing reflects the environment in which I live?