2 The First FanThe first chimney fan - a “first” worldwide and the foundation of EXHAUSTO’s existence
3 A 50-year Old Company Founded in 1957 300,000+ sq.ft. of manufacturing and administrationFamily-owned, well-managed with a very strong balance sheet.High-tech ISO 9001 certified manufacturing facilities
7 “Worldwide” Distribution Subsidiaries in USA, England, Germany, Norway and SwedenAuthorized distributors in Belgium, Netherlands, Finland, France, Iceland, Switzerland, Spain, Austria and Japan.
8 EXHAUSTO in North America In Atlanta since 199016,000 sq.ft. office and warehouse86 authorized sales and service offices in USA and Canada.
9 EXHAUSTO in North America 95% of products are in stock ready for immediate shipping.Inventory level of $800-1,000,000Complete parts inventory
10 Code Development and Publication Involved in code and standard development (NFPA 54, NFPA 211 etc.)Publish articles about venting and venting design.Make over 30 presentations at regional ASHRAE chapters and other organizations every year.Training and education of Building Officials.
15 Acceptable Venting Material AtmosphericFan AssistedForced DraftB-VentMasonryB-VentMasonry (interior)UL103 P-StackWelded SteelIIIINegativePositiveFan Assisted(85+ efficiency)CondensingIIIV(90+ efficiency)AL29-4C single wallCPVC (tested with appliance)(85 – 90 % efficiency)AL29-4C double wallAL29-4C double wall
16 Masonry Chimney Liners Reference: ANSI Z and , NFPAAtmosphericFan AssistedForced DraftClay tile linerClay tile liner (interior chimney)Steel liner (exterior chimney)Exception: Clay tile liner can be used with exterior chimney if an Atmospheric appliance is connected to the same chimneyPositive pressure steel linerEx. Welded steel,Inner liner of pressure stackIIIINegativePositiveIIIVFan Assisted(85+ efficiency)CondensingAL29-4C LinerAL29-4C Liner
17 Z223.1-51 (Venting of equipment) 7.3.1 Minimum Safe PerformanceA venting system shall be designed and constructed so as to develop a positive flow adequate to remove flue or vent gases to the outside atmosphere.7.3.2 Equipment Draft RequirementA venting system shall satisfy the draft requirement of the equipment in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
18 Chimney Design Equation 1996 EditionINPUTS:Appliance TypeFuel TypeMBH InputCO2% in Flue GasesFlue Gas TemperatureAmbient TemperatureAltitudeFlue LayoutTheoreticalDraft (-)PressureLosses (+)+RESULTS:Flue Gas VolumeFlue Gas VelocityTheoretical DraftTotal Pressure LossesAppliance Outlet PressureOutletPressure
27 Modulating Boiler Systems Controlled Draft Design
28 Ordinary Stack Material Cost EXHAUSTO System Material Cost First Cost AnalysisOrdinary Stack Material CostEXHAUSTO System Material CostItemQtyList Price20" pressure stack35'$ 5,77512" pressure stack50'$ 4,60016" pressure stack5'$12" Tee1$14" pressure stack$12" end cap2$10" pressure stack$12" x 8" reducing Tee4$ 1,24020" Tee$20 " end cap$20" x 8" reducing Tee$20" x 16" tapered reducer$16" x 8" reducing Tee$16" x 14" tapered reducer$14" x 8" reducing Tee$14" x 10" tapered reducer$10" x 8" reducing Tee$10" end cap$20" stack cap$Total$ 11,210$ 6,445
29 National Fuel Gas Code NFPA 54 IFGC ANSI Z 223.1 Horizontal distances Large stack areaSelf venting connector riseFan Min capacitiesDifferent type of appliancesExisting masonry chimneysLocation of draft inducer
30 Common Code Violations Chimney Automation System(NFPA 54) Z (Venting of Equipment)The total horizontal distance of a vent plus the horizontal vent connector serving draft hood-equipped appliances shall not be greater than 75 % of the vertical height of the vent.Table 13.1 and The total horizontal length of the vent plus the vent connector for a single Category I appliance is: 100% of the height (vent 6 – 30 ft high); 30 ft (vent 31 – 50 ft high); 50% of the height (vent 51 – 100 ft high)
31 Common Code Violations Chimney Automation System(NFPA 54) Z (Sizing of Venting Systems)The maximum vent connector horizontal length shall be 18 in./in of connector diameter.The length of the common vent manifold shall not exceed 18 in./in. of common vent diameter.The horizontal length of the common vent offset shall not exceed 18 in./in. of common vent diameter.
33 Common Code Violations Chimney Automation System(NFPA 54) Z (Sizing of Venting Systems)Where two or more appliances are connected to a vertical vent or chimney, the flow area of the largest section of vertical or chimney shall not exceed seven times the smallest listed appliance categorized vent areas, flue collar area, or draft hood outlet area unless designed in accordance with approved engineering methods.
34 Common Code Violations Chimney Automation System(NFPA 54) Z (Venting of Equipment)Vent connectors serving Category I appliances shall not be connected into any portion of mechanical draft systems operating under positive static pressure, such as those serving Category III or Category IV appliances.
35 Common Code Violations Chimney Automation System(NFPA 54) ZMasonry chimneys shall be built and installed in accordance with NFPA 211.(NFPA 211) 4-2.2Masonry chimneys shall be lined….Cat II, III and IV gas appliances - special gas vents listed for installation within masonry chimneys.
36 Common Code Violations +-(NFPA 54) Z (Mechanical Draft Systems)Forced draft systems and all portions of induced draft systems under positive pressure during operation shall be designed and installed so as to prevent leakage of flue or vent gases into a building.Vent connectors serving equipment vented by natural draft shall not be connected into any portion of mechanical draft systems operating under positive pressure.
37 Side-wall Venting Z223.1-51-2002 (Venting of Equipment) Mechanical Draft Systems.The exit terminals of mechanical draft systems shall be not less than 7ft above grade where located adjacent to public walkways.
38 Side-wall Venting Z223.1-56 (Venting of Equipment) 7.8 Venting System Location.(a) A Venting system shall terminate at least 3 ft (0.9 m) above any forced air inlet located within 10 ft (3.1 m).Exception No. 1: This provision shall not apply to the combustion air intake of a direct-vent appliance.Exception No. 2: This provision shall not apply to the separation of circulating air inlet and flue gas discharge of listed outdoor appliances.
39 Side-wall Venting Z223.1-56 (Venting of Equipment) 7.8 Venting System Location.(b) The venting system of other than a direct-vent appliance shall terminate at least 4 ft (1.2 m) below, 4 ft (1.2 m) horizontally from, or 1 ft (30 cm) above any door, window, or gravity air inlet into any building. The bottom of the vent terminal shall be located at least 12 in. (30 cm) above grade.
43 Mechanical Draft Systems Defined Z Standard for Venting of EquipmentMechanical draft systems shall be listed and shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listing and both the appliance and the mechanical draft system manufacturer’s instructions.Gas utilization equipment requiring venting shall be permitted to be vented by means of mechanical draft systems of either forced or induced draft design.Exception: IncineratorsWhere a mechanical draft system is employed, provision shall be made to prevent flow of gas to the main burners when the draft system is not performing so as to satisfy the operating requirements of the equipment for safe performance
44 Mechanical Draft Systems Defined IFGC - Section 503 (Venting of Equipment)Mechanical draft. Chimney venting systems using mechanical draft shall be sized in accordance with approved engineering methods.Z Standard for Venting of EquipmentSize of Chimneys. Chimney venting systems using mechanical draft shall be sized in accordance with approved engineering methods.
45 Why Chimney Automation? Enhance Draft for Efficient Boiler OperationReduce EmissionsClean Up AestheticsReduce Heating CostImprove Safety
47 RSV – Chimney Fan 3/16 “ Cast aluminum housing Hinged for easy service and cleaningDirect driveClass H insulated motor - eliminates the need for secondary fan coolingMaintenance free575 ºF Continuous DutyUL 378 – Draft EquipmentThe RSV fan can vent all appliance categories with or without barometric dampersSimple design with few components reduces the risk of failure and simplifies serviceRSV is of Type B, Spark Resistant Construction
48 RSV – Chimney Fan Cast aluminum impeller wheel 500-4000 CFM Permanently attached balance weightsCooling vane mounted on the back of the impellerRSV are single phase 120 V ACRSV are three phase 208 or 400 V AC
51 RSIB – Power Venter SS16 construction Removable access door Direct driveClass A insulated motor - eliminates the need for secondary fan coolingMaintenance free575 ºF Continuous DutyUL 378 – Draft EquipmentThe RSIB fan can vent category I, II, III and IV appliances with or without barometric dampersSimple design with few components reduces the risk of failure and simplifies serviceRSIB is of Type B, Spark Resistant Construction
53 EBC 30 Control - Functions Quick reaction to changes in draft conditions“Plug-n-Play”Priority functionBearings cycleRotation checkHandles two 0-10VDC outputs and one 0-120VAC outputInterlock with up 10 appliancesNumerous programmable features80% software and 20% hardware guarantees future improvements without replacing control
54 EBC 30 Control - Design Fan Control Module (optional) Main Board Display and processorRelay Module (optional)
55 EBC 30 – Control Characteristics Other ControlsQuick reaction to changes in draft conditions (max. 20 seconds)Low draft cut-offSlow reaction to changes in draft conditions (up to 90 seconds)Low draft cut-offHigh draft cut-off
57 New RSIF Power Venter Three Models 440, 740, & 1000 cfm Rated to 400°F non-condensing applicationsForward inclined impeller. Statically and dynamically balanced.Insulated housing in galvanized steelHinged fan housing easily opens to provide easy access to duct and impellerDirect drive, variable speed, TEFC motor located outside housing for easy access.
58 New Products – EBC 5 Features Controls RSV , all RSIF Fans, and BESB250Activates on a V AC or DC signalBuilt-in Fan Speed ControlTime delay and active response to avoid nuisance alarmsPre and Post – Purge cycleNo built-in PDS
59 CASV Applications – Stack Downsizing Hazen High School – Renton, WASoldier Field - Chicago, IL
60 CASV Applications - Aesthetics Rigel – South San Francisco, CAGetty Center – Los Angeles, CA
61 CASV Applications - Aesthetics SBC Center – San Antonio, TX
65 MODS Components MDF Damper Sizes – 12 in. to 48 in. diameters Multiple opposed blades made of 16 gauge type 316 stainlessPressure stack flange connectionsRated to 700°FEBC30Prime functionAdditional over-pressure protection for Forced-draft boilers
66 Kaiser Center - Oakland, CA Wells Fargo - Great Falls, MT MODS ApplicationsKaiser Center - Oakland, CAWells Fargo - Great Falls, MTMarkham Road - Toronto
68 Codes and StandardsCode Requirements – Air for Combustion and VentilationZ Outdoor Combustion Air.Two Permanent Openings Method. Two permanent openings, one commencing within 12 in. of the top and one commencing within 12 in. of the bottom of the enclosure, shall be provided. The openings shall communicate directly, or by ducts, with the outdoors or spaces that freely communicate with the outdoors as follows:Where directly communicating with the outdoors or through vertical ducts, each opening shall have a minimum free area of1 in.²/4000 Btu of total input rating of all equipment in the enclosure.(2) Where communicating with the outdoors through horizontal ducts, each opening shall have a minimum free area of not less than 1in.²/2000 Btu of total input rating of all equipment in the enclosure
69 Codes and StandardsCode Requirements – Air for Combustion and VentilationZ Outdoor Combustion Air.One Permanent Opening Method: One permanent opening, commencing within 12 in. of the top of the enclosure, shall be provided. The opening shall directly communicate with the outdoors or shall communicate through a vertical or horizontal duct to the outdoors or spaces that freely communicate with the outdoors and shall have a minimum free area of the following:1 in.²/3000 Btu of the total input rating of all equipment located in the enclosure, andNot less than the sum of the areas of all vent connectors in the space.
70 Codes and Standards Sizing of Gravity Louvers Louver(s) Sizing: 1 sq.in./4000 Btu per louver4000 MBH = 1000 in2of free area per louver.Typical louver has 30-60% free area.Depending on louver design actual louver size will be:Using 45% free area louvers= Two 5’ x 4’ louvers2000 MBH2000 MBH
71 Codes and StandardsCode Requirements – Air for Combustion and Ventilation – Mechanical Combustion Air Supply (MCAS)Z8.3.6 Mechanical Combustion Air Supply. Where all combustion air is provided by a mechanical air supply system, the combustion air shall be supplied from outdoors at the minimum rate of 0.35 ft³/min per1000 Btu/hr for all appliances located within the space.Where exhaust fans are installed, additional air shall be provided to replace the exhausted air.Each of the appliances served shall be interlocked to the mechanical air supply system to prevent main burner operation where the mechanical air supply system is not in operation.
72 Codes and Standards Sizing of Mechanical Combustion Air Louver Sizing: Engineered using ASHRAE Chimney Design Equation.Flue Gas Volume corrected for temperature= 1,400 cfm of combustion air1400 cfm/500 fpm= 2.8 ft2 of louver free areaUsing a 45% free area louver= One 3’ x 2’ louver2000 MBH2000 MBH
75 MCAS Components – BESF/BESB Fan Seven Models450 – 5500 cfmFan can be mounted indoors or outdoors.Impeller - statically and dynamically balanced.Insulated housing in galvanized steelHinged fan housing easily opens to provide easy access to duct and impellerDirect drive, variable speed, TEFC motor located outside housing for easy access.Variable Frequency Drive is used on three phase models (VFD should be located inside the building).
76 MCAS Components – SFTA Fan Seven Models1,500 – 30,000 cfmFan can be mounted indoorsImpeller – cast allunimum.Housing in steelDirect drive, variable speed, TEFC motor located outside housing for easy access.Variable Frequency Drive is used on three phase models (VFD should be located inside the building).
77 EBC30 Modulating Control Chimney Automation SystemModulating Combustion Air Supply System
83 Why a MDVS?To extend the exhaust duct length of a single or multiple dryersTo common exhaust multiple dryersTo meet codes especially fire ratingsTo reduce drying timesTo reduce energy costs
84 Types of Clothes Dryers Type 1 dryers: “Domestic” dryers to be used primarily in a family living environment.ResidencesIndividual apartments or condominiumsType 2 dryers: “Public” dryers designed to be used in business with direct intercourse of the function with the public.LaundromatsLaundry rooms (apartment complexes, dormitories, etc.)Business laundries (hotels, hospitals, health clubs, etc.)
85 Typical Dryer Manufacturer’s Requirements Where possible use a single exhaust duct per dryerDryers are to run with a positive outlet pressure.Type 1 dryers between and inch W.C.Type 2 dryers between and inch W.C.Maximum exhaust duct length:Type 1 dryers = 35 equiv. feet (each elbow = 5 feet)Type 2 dryers = 15 equiv. feet (each elbow = 5 feet)
86 Typical Dryer Manufacturer’s Requirements for Multiple Dryers Vertical venting must not exceed 8 feet and can include up to 3 elbowsHorizontal venting cannot exceed 15 feet and 1 elbow.
87 Use an MDVS to Extend Exhaust Duct Exhaust duct can be extended to almost any lengthNo need to locate dryer near a secluded outdoor wallReduce drying times by holding the correct outlet pressure
88 Common Exhausting of Multiple Dryers Common horizontal duct diameter is sized with maximum 0.10 inch W.C. pressure dropPressure drop in main exhaust shaft is only limited by fan’s total pressure capabilityCleanouts must be provided in the common horizontal as well as the main exhaust shaft for removal of lintThe BESB fan can be located anywhere down-stream of the last dryer
89 Common Exhausting of Multiple Dryers By definition only Type 2 dryers should be used for this applicationConnector from dryer outlet to common horizontal is metal duct with smooth interior finishConnector diameter = dryer outlet diameterMax connector length = 15 equivalent feetConnector to be attached to common horizontal at no greater than 45°
90 Use an MDVS for Multiple Dryer Exhausting Multistory exhaustingof dryersCommon exhausting ofmultiple dryers
91 Multistory Exhausting of Dryers Type 1 or Type 2 dryersIf main exhaust shaft does not need to be fire rated – attach connector to main shaft at 45° as previously shownIf main exhaust shaft does need to be fire rated – attach connector via a 22 inch subduct riser as shownMain exhaust shaft and subduct riser must be made of appropriate materials to meet local codesIn order to offset the subducts, a square or rectangular main exhaust shaft should be considered
92 Main Issues when Common Exhausting Dryers For multistory dryer systems where the 22 inch subduct is used to maintain fire rating, a fan MUST BE USED and it must be in operation at all times to comply with code requirementsIBC 2006Penetrations of shaft enclosures. Shaftenclosures that are permitted to be penetrated by ductsand air transfer openings shall be protected withapproved fire and smoke dampers installed in accordancewith their listing.Exceptions:1. Fire dampers are not required at penetrationsof shafts where:1.1 Steel exhaust subducts extend at least 22 inches(559 mm) vertically in exhaust shafts pro-videdthere is a continuous airflow upward tothe outside.2. In Group B and R occupancies, equipped throughout with and automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section smoke dampers are not required at penetrations of shafts where:2.1. Kitchen, clothes dryer, bathroom and toilet room exhaust are installed with steel exhaust subducts, having a wall thickness of 0.019(0.48 mm); and2.2 That extend at least 22 inches vertically; and2.3 An exhaust fan is installed at the upper terminus of the shaft, that is powered continuously in accordance with Section , so as to maintain a continuous upward airflow to the outside.
93 Multistory Exhausting of Dryers Dryer is connected to subduct riser using a transition ductType 1 dryers - total equivalent feet of subduct riser plus transition duct = 25 feetType 1 dryers can use an approved flexible metal duct of max 8 feetType 2 dryers – total equivalent feet of subduct riser plus transition duct = 15 feet
94 Multistory Exhausting of Dryers Main exhaust shaft is made of smooth (fire-rated) materialMain exhaust shaft sized to max 0.10 inch W.C. pressure dropAccess door or cleanout to be located at bottom of main exhaust shaft for lint removalBESB fan can be located anywhere above top most dryer
95 Main Issues when Common Exhausting Dryers No dampers (back-draft dampers, fire dampers) or baffles can be used IN the duct system unless approved by the dryer manufacturer. An approved back-draft damper can be used at the termination of the exhaust duct.Exhaust system must be able to unload so that off dryers will not be drawn into a deep negativeThe pressure drop between dryers must be maintained less than 0.10 in W.C.
96 MDVS versus Single Speed ETL Listed mechanical dryer exhaust systemUsually runs at low rpm = low powerUses little to no conditioned air = low additional building heat or A/CSingle SpeedNo listing for lint-laden airRuns at full rpm 24 hr/day X 365 days/yr = high powerUses a large quantity of conditioned air = large additional building heat and A/C
100 MDVS Components - BESB Fan Four Models1200 – 5500 cfmCast aluminum, backward curved impeller reduces lint build-up. Statically and dynamically balanced with permanently attached balancing weights.Insulated hinged fan housing easily opens to provide easy access to duct and impellerDirect drive with variable speed TEFC motor located outside housing for easy access. Frequency drive should be located inside the building.ETL Listed to UL705 with special consideration for operation with lint-laden air
102 ABC’s of the MDVS A Aesthetics B Back Pressure C Cost reduction Exhaust your dryers out a less visible wallLocate dryers where you wantB Back PressureMaintain the back pressure required by the manufacture to keep drying time down and reduce the risk of firesC Cost reductionReduce the size of the exhaust ventReduce operating costs by keeping drying times down
103 MCAS Modulating Combustion Air Supply for Dryers
104 Why MCAS for Dryers? Make-Up Air. Z223.1-2002 9.4 Clothes Dryers. Provisions for Make-Up Air. Provisions for make-up air shall be provided for Type 2 clothes dryers, with a minimum free area of 1 sq.in. for each 1000 Btu per hr total input rating of the dryer(s) installed.
105 Manufacturer’s Requirement National Fuel Gas Code requires a minimum free area opening of 1 sq.in./1000 BtuhMost manufacturers require even larger – approximately 1 sq.in / 700 Btuh. Ex. A twin 30# tumbler dryer with a total input of 204,000 Btuh (1100 cfm) requires a minimum 2 sq.ft. free area opening.Most laundry facilities have problems with make-up air. The industry believes it is one of their biggest problems.
106 MCAS Components – SFTA Fan Seven Models1,500 – 30,000 cfmFan can be mounted indoorsImpeller – cast allunimum.Housing in steelDirect drive, variable speed, TEFC motor located outside housing for easy access.Variable Frequency Drive is used on three phase models (VFD should be located inside the building).
107 Marriott Waterfront – Annapolis, MD One 24 inch ducted combustion air inletInstead ofOne 90 ft.² louver