Presentation on theme: "AIR DISTRIBUTION (Additional information. Also see Chapter 18) General The proper delivery of air for heating, cooling, or ventilation is a crucial part."— Presentation transcript:
AIR DISTRIBUTION (Additional information. Also see Chapter 18) General The proper delivery of air for heating, cooling, or ventilation is a crucial part of the ducted air distribution system. When conditioned air is supplied to a space by ductwork, the duct has to terminate in an outlet device capable of introducing the air into the space in an air pattern that maintains the desired air temperature, humidity, and motion. The resulting conditions will be unsatisfactory if the air is not properly introduced.
AIR DISTRIBUTION Throw (See section 18.0) The horizontal distance that an air stream travels from an outlet before it slows to a comfortable velocity (usually 50 to 100 fpm) is called its throw. The throw should be long enough to give the air stream time to mix sufficiently with room temperature so that its temperature and velocity reach comfortable levels before the air drops down into the occupied zone. Otherwise, uncomfortable drafts will result. If the air stream is warmer than the room air, it will tend not to drop at all.
AIR DISTRIBUTION 3.00 Types of outlets Ceiling diffusers Ceiling outlets that spread air out in a horizontal discharge pattern,creating a plane of conditioned air that blankets the ceiling. As the supply air mixes with the entrained room air close to the ceiling, its velocity and temperature gradually decrease, until it finally drops to the occupied zone where it comes in contact with the occupants of the room. Square, round, and rectangular shapes. A ceiling diffuser, when controlled by dampers, may be termed as a register.
AIR DISTRIBUTION Registers (see section 18.0) A grille with damper directly behind the louvered face to regulate the volume of airflow. Apart from ceiling, registers are also used for wall and floor outlets. Perforated ceiling panels Used when a large proportion of the ceiling may be used as an outlet. Perforated ceiling panels provide a well-distributed air supply straight down.
AIR DISTRIBUTION Slotted diffusers Linear in shape, slotted diffusers are elongated outlets consisting of single or multiple slots usually installed in long continuous lengths. Available in two basic flow patterns: perpendicular and parallel. The perpendicular type discharges air within 30º of perpendicular to the face of the diffuser; it creates long, narrow bands of conditioned air flowing into the room, and is best suited for perimeter heating applications. The parallel flow type discharges air parallel to the surface of diffuser and is suited for cooling applications.
AIR DISTRIBUTION Suitability of outlets No single type of outlets is suitable for both heating and cooling. Heating outlets The heating outlet location that most effectively provides comfort is near the floor at outside walls, especially below windows. It provides vertical stream of air that flows upward to blanket the cold surfaces and counteracts perimeter downdrafts of cold air. Adding heat at the area of highest heat loss prevents uneven air temperatures and an uneven radiant temperature distribution.
AIR DISTRIBUTION Cooling outlets Proper cooling requires larger quantities of air than is generally needed for heating. This air must be carefully and evenly diffused. The best method is to deliver air through multiple outlets strategically located in the ceiling. When a compromise is required for year-round operation of a single system, the optimum location is determined by the predominant application. Ideally, a ducted air system with ceiling registers/ diffusers provides cooling and ventilation while a separate perimeter system, such as fin-tube radiation, is used for heating. When this is not possible, it is important that delivery device be carefully selected and located.
AIR DISTRIBUTION Return air (see section 18.3) Whenever air is supplied to a room, provisions must be made either to return the room air to the AHU or to exhaust it to the outside. This requires the installation of return air inlets. They should not be located close to the supply outlet and, if possible, not at the same height. This will result in short circuiting which means that supply air will bypass portions of the space without conditioning it. Return air inlets may be connected to a duct.
AIR DISTRIBUTION Return air inlets for cooling systems can be located in ceilings or high above on walls, provided they do not cause short circuiting. Return air inlets for heating systems should preferably be located near the floor to discourage stratification of warm air near the ceiling, and across from the supply outlets to ensure heating throughout the room. Return inlets actually on the floor are undesirable because they readily collect dirt, which clogs the filter, and imposes an undue strain on the AHU.
AIR DISTRIBUTION Face velocity This is the velocity of air in fpm at some point in the distribution system based on overall area through which air is passing. e.g. face velocity of a register with a face area of 18 in. x 6 in., supplying a volume of 375 CFM of air, would be 375/[(18x6)/144] = 500 fpm.