Presentation on theme: "Teddy Roosevelt: Most notable for the power he brought to the executive branch. Reformer? In name, yes In practice, sometimes. Came to power with Assassination."— Presentation transcript:
Teddy Roosevelt: Most notable for the power he brought to the executive branch. Reformer? In name, yes In practice, sometimes. Came to power with Assassination of Mckinley
Leon Czolgosz- Anarchist Son of Polish immigrants Unemployed factory worker 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo
The Incident – 1 st attempt not carried out due to lack of proximity at a McKinley Speech – 2 nd attempt- Temple of Music Czolgosz wrapped gun in handkerchief McKinley tried to shake his hand but was shot twice James Parker- 66 unemployed waiter – African-American standing behind Czolgosz was distracting bodyguard (later testimony) – Was the first to assault Czolgosz with two punches to the face McKinley first improved then died days later of infection.
Saw Govt. as mediator of the public good. Believed the President should should guide and protect the public interest. Trusts – Wanted more regulation NOT destruction of combinations – Govt. should investigate activities and publish results Transparency would alleviate most abuses
1904-Dissolved this JP Morgan company Assured Morgan that this was not a campaign to go after all trusts Overall, Roosevelt left trusts alone
United Mine Workers Strike- 1902 Intervened on behalf of workers Threatened to seize mines with troops if owners didnt negotiate. Roosevelt also intervened on behalf of owners
1904 Election Roosevelt promised to give everyone a square deal. Cited the 1902 Mine Strike Reform Efforts Hepburn Act 1906- weak effort at regulating railroads Angered La Follette
Consumer Protection – Pure Food and Drug Act – regulated medicines Workers Compensation 8 Hour Workday Inheritance and Income Taxes Regulation of Stock Market Conservation His actions began to strain his relationship with the conservatives in his own party
Influenced by The Jungle- Upton Sinclair ? Marxist Sinclairs motive was NOT food industry but CAPITALISM I aimed at their hearts but hit their stomachs How much did Sinclair influence govt action?
The 1906 report of the Department of Agricultures Bureau of Animal Husbandry refuted the worst of Sinclairs charges point-by-point. The report labeled his claims... * willful and deliberate misrepresentations of fact * atrocious exaggeration * And not at all characteristic (of the meat packing industry) – (Source: U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Agriculture, Hearings on the So-called Beveridge Amendment to the Agriculture Appropriation Bill, 59th Congress, 1st Session, 1906, pp. 346-350.) Meanwhile, as Congress went through the time-consuming process of investigating Sinclairs fictions, the free market was regulating the meat packing industry in its own harsh way. Meat sales plummeted. This led the meat packing industry to lobby Congress for increased regulation! The industry actually wanted the government to protect them from the consumer backlash by imposing regulations that would restore consumer confidence, even though new regulations were totally unneeded! The result was the passage of the Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
I have an utter contempt for him. He is hysterical, unbalanced, and untruthful. Three- fourths of the things he said were absolute falsehoods. For some of the remainder there was only a basis of truth. (Source: letter to William Allen White, July 31, 1906, from The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, 8 vols, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1951-54, vol. 5, p. 340.)
The first true environmentalist President. Deeply loved nature and outdoors Executive powers – Restricted private development on much govt. land ( added to National Forest Land) – Believed in carefully managed use of land and resources by experts. – Gifford Pinchot- appointed first director of National Forest Service National Reclamation Act- 1902 (Newlands Act) – Federal funds and support for dams, reservoirs, and canals in the West Helped with Irrigation and Power
He also believe that some lands should not be developed at all. Influenced by Naturalist- John Muir Founder of the Sierra Club Fought tirelessly to preserve Yosemite Hetch Hetchy Valley Added more land to the National Parks
Proposal to dam a pristine valley in Yosemite to create reservoir for San Francisco. Opposed vigorously by Muir and other naturalists Pinchot: Given authority to decide by Roosevelt 1906- Earthquake gained sympathy for SF Decided interests of the city were greater than interests of the preservationists. Preservationists: More mobilized for future fights against rational use of the environment
Downturn symbolized the lack of control the govt. had over the economy. Caused by over-production Roosevelt was blamed Acted by letting business leaders solve the problem w/o govt. interference. JP Morgan organized a bailout of banks Purchased Tennessee Coal and Iron Co. (no fear of interference) Panic subsided shortly after.
Election of 1908- Roosevelt decided not to run again largely due to: earlier promise not to run Alienation of conservatives in his own party Most trusted lieutenant and hand picked successor. Largely ineffective, alienated progressives on issues of: Tariffs Ballinger-Pinchot Dispute- corruption scandal led to the dismissal of Pinchot by Taft (angered progressives)
Angered by Tafts splintering of the Party New Nationalism Speech Shift away from cautiousconservatism Argued for a strong federal govt. Executive should be a steward of the public welfare Those who thought primarily of personal property rights and personal profit must now give way to the advocate of human welfare Graduated Income Tax Inheritance Tax Workers Compensation Labor regs for women and children
Graduated Income Tax Inheritance Tax Workers Compensation Labor regs for women and children Tariff Revision Firmer regulation of corporations
Conservative Republicans saw widespread defeats Progressives won re-election Democrats (also pushed progressive candidates won control of the House) Gained strength in the Senate Roosevelt decides to run La Follette drops out due to health Anger at Taft Tennessee Coal and Iron Company Deal (Panic of 1907)
Taft- R- Candidate of the conservatives Roosevelt –Bull Moose Party- Progressives Wilson- D- Progressives Strategically Roosevelt knew had little chance Many would not follow him from the Republican party Progressives were split with Wilson
Progressivism was gaining prominence in Dem. Party New Freedom Economic Policy Go after trusts and monopoly aggressively to break them up. Election Result Wilson 42% Taft 23% Roosevelt 27 Debs 6%
Bold and forceful leader Empowered the Executive Branch even further Surrounded himself with fiercely loyal appointees Reforms Underwood-Simmons Tariff Lowered tariffs to: Increase competition Weaken trusts Tax Reform 1-6% income tax on individuals and corporations.
Created the Federal Reserve Bank 12 regional banks Federal Reserve Board would supervise Appointed by the President Powers: Issue currency Interest rates Money Supply Support troubled banks in times of need
Federal Trade Commission Act Commission to determine if business actions would be acceptable to govt. before the action was taken. Power to prosecute unfair trade practices (but unfair is not defined) Power to investigate corporate behavior Clayton Anti-trust Bill Was supposed to allow govt. to aggressively take action against trusts. Greatly weakened by convervatives, Wilson didnt seem to care much. Departure from his campaign rhetoric? Now seemed more focused on oversight
Did not support: Suffrage Desegregation efforts (some evidence to support racist attitude) Southern background. Dismissed much reform legislation citing: Constitutionality Unneccessary Mid-term elections of 1914 Democratic setbacks seemed to ignite reform attitude of Wilson
Appointed reformer Louis Brandeis to Supreme Court Easier credit for farmers Workers Comp for federal employees Keating-Owen Act-1916- first federal law regulating child labor. Prohibited shipment of child produced goods across state lines. (struck down in 1918 but later upheld) Wilson later tried to impose heavy tax on child labor Also struck down
Roosevelt Saw foreign policy as an easy way to exert influence Suited to his personality Big Stick Policy Comes from the old adage walk softly but carry a big stick
Civilized White / Anglo Japan was an exception to Roosevelt (due to rapid industrialization) Produced Industrial Goods Uncivilized Latin, Asian, Slavic Low economic develop. Produced raw materials, agricult. Seen as market for goods
Right and duty to preserve order and stability for both nations. Strong Navy needed 1906- 2 nd to England
Russo-Japanese War 1904- Japan and Russia go to war over land in Manchuria Japan wanted a role as an industrial/imperial power Natural Resources US and Roosevelt help negotiate treaty US interest is Open Door Terms: Russia would acknowledge Japanese gains Japan would cease further expansion Secret: Japan and US agree to allow US trade in the region
Results: Greater US influence internationally and in the region Nobel Peace Prize for Roosevelt Japanese naval dominance in the Pacific (destroyed Russian fleet) Greater tension between US and Japan Japan began to limit US trade Great White Fleet sails around the world, with stop in Japan
Every since Monroe Doctrine, US policy was to keep influence over Western Hemisphere Venezuelan Incident: Stopped paying back debt owed to European countries Naval blockade: Britain, Italy, Germany US uses threat of naval intervention to force end to blockade
Not only to oppose European intervention But also intervene INSIDE Latin countries who Cannot maintain stability and sovereignty Dominican Republic- 1903 New revolutionary govt. could not maintain financial order US takes receivership and handles finances for 3 decades Cuba - Platt Amendment Condition of independence prevented foreign intervention into Cuba 1906- US troops landed to quell domestic uprisings for 3 years
Most celebrated accomplishment of Roosevelt Linked Atlantic and Pacific Crucial to effectiveness of US Navy that needs influence in both Atlantic and Pacific
Because Colombia would not agree to US terms for canal Roosevelt staged a revolution so US troops could help maintain order. Panama recognized as independent nation Work on canal proceeded, finished in 1914
Taft had less interest in global stability then Roosevelt but still adhered to spirit of Roosevelt Corollary Nicaragua 1909- US backs rebels and offers loans to the new govt. Dollar Diplomacy Increase American influence through financial leverage
Latin American policy Similar to that of Roosevelt and Taft Signed treaty with Nicaragua guaranteeing No other power could build a canal there. US could intervene to protect US interests. Mexico US influences Mexican politics to help US business interests. Rebel Pancho Villa- Conducts raids over US border Pursued by General John J. Pershing Never found Villa, he was later gunned down in Mexico Wilson more interested in looming WWI