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Progressive Presidents Teddy Roosevelt: Republican reformer

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1 Progressive Presidents Teddy Roosevelt: Republican reformer
"This country will not be a permanently good place for any of us to live in unless we make it a reasonably good place for all of us to live in." Chicago, IL, June 17, 1912 Thinking Skill: Explicitly assess Presidential reforms and draw conclusions about their impact

2 “TR” the President

3 United Mine Workers Union Strike
May 1902 mineworkers demand higher wages, shorter hours, recognition How did previous Presidents handle labor strikes? How did TR handle the UMWU strike? Arbitration – miners won 10% pay increase and reduced workday from 10 to 9 hours

4 How does the cartoon depict TR’s stance toward trusts?

5 A “Square Deal” for All Americans
Goal: prevent wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor 1st major anti-trust lawsuit against JP Morgan’s Northern Securities Company (RR holding company) in 1901 5-4 vote Supreme Court dissolved NSC TR set sights on Standard Oil Co, American Tobacco Co, and threatened U.S. Steel

6 From Trustbusting to Regulating
Elkins Act (1903)- outlawed rebates on RR freights Hepburn Act (1906)- ICC could set maximum RR rates and examine RR finances Meat Inspection Act (1906)- provided for inspection of meat packing plants Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)- required accurate ingredient labels and prohibited unproven claims about a product

7 Conservation Movement
Preservationists- John Muir, Sierra Club sought to maintain wilderness areas for beauty and aesthetics Developers- Big business sought to exploit resources for economic gain Mining, timber, farmers, ranchers Conservationists- Gifford Pinchot, U.S. Forest Service sought to scientifically manage lands for public and commercial use Distinction between Preservation and Conservation

8 Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir on Glacier Point, Yosemite Valley, California

9 Roosevelt was an avid hunter

10 TR’s Approach to Environment
"The conservation of natural resources is the fundamental problem. Unless we solve that problem it will avail us little to solve all others." Address at Deep Waterway Convention, TN (10/4/07) "The object of government is the welfare of the people."…"Conservation means development as much as it does protection. I recognize the right and duty of this generation to develop and use the natural resources of our land; but I do not recognize the right to waste them, or to rob, by wasteful use, the generations that come after us."

11 William Howard Taft TR haunted by 1904 promise not to run for re-election Wanted successor to continue “my policies” Helped Taft win 1908 election (against Bryan) Past Experience: Attorney, Judge Oversight of Philippines under McKinley TR’s Secretary of War Moderate Republican reformer: 2 times as many lawsuits against trusts Rift with Teddy Roosevelt and Progressives Lawsuit against U.S. Steel Unsuccessful in getting Congress to lower tariffs Fired Pinchot for criticizing Ballinger

12 Teddy Roosevelt enters 1912 Election Campaign
Teddy Roosevelt “New Nationalism” Regulation of business to serve public interest Taft vs. Roosevelt Contentious Republican convention Roosevelt runs under (“Bull Moose”) Progressive Party Republican vote is split between the two Woodrow Wilson wins Election Taft – taught law at Yale Chief Justice of Supreme Court (1921)

13 Woodrow Wilson Democratic Progressive Reformer
“New Freedom” – govt. reg. of economy Reigning in Banks, Tariffs, Trusts Underwood Tariff Bill (1913) Increased Competition Launched income tax Federal Reserve Act Regulate banks and reserve funds Sets interest Rates Clayton Antitrust Act – outlawed certain business practices

14 Presidential Legacies
What impact did each President’s actions have on the nation? On the Presidency? Which Progressive President do you believe made the best contributions?

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