1Progressive Presidents Teddy Roosevelt: Republican reformer "This country will not be a permanently good place for any of us to live in unless we make it a reasonably good place for all of us to live in." Chicago, IL, June 17, 1912Thinking Skill: Explicitly assess Presidential reforms and draw conclusions about their impact
3United Mine Workers Union Strike May 1902 mineworkers demand higher wages, shorter hours, recognitionHow did previous Presidents handle labor strikes?How did TR handle the UMWU strike?Arbitration – miners won 10% pay increase and reduced workday from 10 to 9 hours
4How does the cartoon depict TR’s stance toward trusts?
5A “Square Deal” for All Americans Goal: prevent wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor1st major anti-trust lawsuit against JP Morgan’s Northern Securities Company (RR holding company) in 19015-4 vote Supreme Court dissolved NSCTR set sights on Standard Oil Co, American Tobacco Co, and threatened U.S. Steel
6From Trustbusting to Regulating Elkins Act (1903)- outlawed rebates on RR freightsHepburn Act (1906)- ICC could set maximum RR rates and examine RR financesMeat Inspection Act (1906)- provided for inspection of meat packing plantsPure Food and Drug Act (1906)- required accurate ingredient labels and prohibited unproven claims about a product
7Conservation Movement Preservationists- John Muir, Sierra Club sought to maintain wilderness areas for beauty and aestheticsDevelopers- Big business sought to exploit resources for economic gainMining, timber, farmers, ranchersConservationists- Gifford Pinchot, U.S. Forest Service sought to scientifically manage lands for public and commercial useDistinction between Preservation and Conservation
8Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir on Glacier Point, Yosemite Valley, California
10TR’s Approach to Environment "The conservation of natural resources is the fundamental problem. Unless we solve that problem it will avail us little to solve all others." Address at Deep Waterway Convention, TN (10/4/07)"The object of government is the welfare of the people."…"Conservation means development as much as it does protection. I recognize the right and duty of this generation to develop and use the natural resources of our land; but I do not recognize the right to waste them, or to rob, by wasteful use, the generations that come after us."
11William Howard TaftTR haunted by 1904 promise not to run for re-electionWanted successor to continue “my policies”Helped Taft win 1908 election (against Bryan)Past Experience:Attorney, JudgeOversight of Philippines under McKinleyTR’s Secretary of WarModerate Republican reformer:2 times as many lawsuits against trustsRift with Teddy Roosevelt and ProgressivesLawsuit against U.S. SteelUnsuccessful in getting Congress to lower tariffsFired Pinchot for criticizing Ballinger
12Teddy Roosevelt enters 1912 Election Campaign Teddy Roosevelt “New Nationalism”Regulation of business to serve public interestTaft vs. RooseveltContentious Republican conventionRoosevelt runs under (“Bull Moose”) Progressive PartyRepublican vote is split between the twoWoodrow Wilson wins ElectionTaft – taught law at YaleChief Justice of Supreme Court (1921)
13Woodrow Wilson Democratic Progressive Reformer “New Freedom” – govt. reg. of economyReigning in Banks, Tariffs, TrustsUnderwood Tariff Bill (1913)Increased CompetitionLaunched income taxFederal Reserve ActRegulate banks and reserve fundsSets interest RatesClayton Antitrust Act – outlawed certain business practices
14Presidential Legacies What impact did each President’s actions have on the nation? On the Presidency?Which Progressive President do you believe made the best contributions?