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Progressive Presidents Teddy Roosevelt: Republican reformer Thinking Skill: Explicitly assess Presidential reforms and draw conclusions about their impact.

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Presentation on theme: "Progressive Presidents Teddy Roosevelt: Republican reformer Thinking Skill: Explicitly assess Presidential reforms and draw conclusions about their impact."— Presentation transcript:

1 Progressive Presidents Teddy Roosevelt: Republican reformer Thinking Skill: Explicitly assess Presidential reforms and draw conclusions about their impact "This country will not be a permanently good place for any of us to live in unless we make it a reasonably good place for all of us to live in." Chicago, IL, June 17, 1912

2 “TR” the President Used the Presidency as a “Bully Pulpit”: He pressured politicians to enact reforms by using his popularity with the American public. In doing so, he expanded the powers of the American Presidency.

3 United Mine Workers Union Strike May 1902 coal miners demand higher wages, shorter hours, recognition May 1902 coal miners demand higher wages, shorter hours, recognition How did previous Presidents handle labor strikes? How did previous Presidents handle labor strikes? How did TR handle the United Mineworkers Union strike? How did TR handle the United Mineworkers Union strike? Invited owners and union leaders to DC Invited owners and union leaders to DC Threatened to have federal troops take over mines Threatened to have federal troops take over mines Precedent: first U.S. President to intervene on side of workers Precedent: first U.S. President to intervene on side of workers Negotiated & miners won 10% pay increase and reduced workday from 10 to 9 hours Negotiated & miners won 10% pay increase and reduced workday from 10 to 9 hours

4 A “Square Deal” for All Americans Goal: prevent wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small businesses and the poor Goal: prevent wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small businesses and the poor Began enforcing the Sherman Anti-trust Act Began enforcing the Sherman Anti-trust Act 1 st anti-trust lawsuit against JP Morgan’s Northern Securities Company (RR) in st anti-trust lawsuit against JP Morgan’s Northern Securities Company (RR) in vote Supreme Court dissolved NSC 5-4 vote Supreme Court dissolved NSC

5 How does the cartoon depict TR’s stance toward trusts?

6 From Trustbusting to Regulating Elkins Act (1903)- outlawed rebates on RR freights Elkins Act (1903)- outlawed rebates on RR freights Hepburn Act (1906)- ICC could set maximum RR rates and examine RR finances Hepburn Act (1906)- ICC could set maximum RR rates and examine RR finances Meat Inspection Act (1906)- provided for inspection of meat packing plants Meat Inspection Act (1906)- provided for inspection of meat packing plants Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)- required accurate ingredient labels and prohibited unproven claims about a product Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)- required accurate ingredient labels and prohibited unproven claims about a product

7 Roosevelt was an avid hunter

8 Conservation Movement Preservationists- John Muir, Sierra Club sought to maintain wilderness areas for beauty and aesthetics Preservationists- John Muir, Sierra Club sought to maintain wilderness areas for beauty and aesthetics Developers- Big business sought to exploit resources for economic gain Developers- Big business sought to exploit resources for economic gain Mining, timber, farmers, ranchers Mining, timber, farmers, ranchers Conservationists- Gifford Pinchot, U.S. Forest Service sought to scientifically manage lands for both public and commercial use Conservationists- Gifford Pinchot, U.S. Forest Service sought to scientifically manage lands for both public and commercial use Distinction b/w Preservation & Conservation Distinction b/w Preservation & Conservation

9 TR and John Muir at Yosemite "The conservation of natural resources is the fundamental problem. Unless we solve that problem it will avail us little to solve all others." - TR’s Address at Deep Waterway Convention Oct. 4, 1907

10 William Howard Taft TR haunted by 1904 promise not to run for re-election TR haunted by 1904 promise not to run for re-election Wanted successor to continue “my policies” Wanted successor to continue “my policies” Helped Taft win 1908 election (against Bryan) Helped Taft win 1908 election (against Bryan) Past Experience: Past Experience: Attorney, Judge Attorney, Judge Oversight of Philippines under McKinley Oversight of Philippines under McKinley TR’s Secretary of War TR’s Secretary of War Moderate Republican reformer: Moderate Republican reformer: 2 times as many lawsuits against trusts 2 times as many lawsuits against trusts Rift with Teddy Roosevelt and Progressives Rift with Teddy Roosevelt and Progressives Lawsuit against U.S. Steel Lawsuit against U.S. Steel Unsuccessful in getting Congress to lower tariffs Unsuccessful in getting Congress to lower tariffs Fired Pinchot for criticizing Ballinger Fired Pinchot for criticizing Ballinger

11 Teddy Roosevelt enters 1912 Election Campaign Teddy Roosevelt “New Nationalism” Teddy Roosevelt “New Nationalism” Regulation of business to serve public interest Regulation of business to serve public interest Taft vs. Roosevelt Taft vs. Roosevelt Contentious Republican convention Contentious Republican convention Roosevelt runs under (“Bull Moose”) Progressive Party Roosevelt runs under (“Bull Moose”) Progressive Party Republican vote is split between the two Republican vote is split between the two Woodrow Wilson wins Election Woodrow Wilson wins Election Taft – taught law at Yale Taft – taught law at Yale Chief Justice of Supreme Court (1921) Chief Justice of Supreme Court (1921)

12 Woodrow Wilson Democratic Progressive Reformer Democratic Progressive Reformer “New Freedom” – govt. reg. of economy “New Freedom” – govt. reg. of economy Reigning in Banks, Tariffs, Trusts Reigning in Banks, Tariffs, Trusts Underwood Tariff Bill (1913) Underwood Tariff Bill (1913) Increased Competition Increased Competition Launched income tax Launched income tax Federal Reserve Act Federal Reserve Act Regulate banks and reserve funds Regulate banks and reserve funds Sets interest Rates Sets interest Rates Clayton Antitrust Act – outlawed certain business practices Clayton Antitrust Act – outlawed certain business practices

13 Presidential Legacies What impact did each President’s actions have on the nation? On the Presidency? What impact did each President’s actions have on the nation? On the Presidency? Which Progressive President do you believe made the best contributions? Which Progressive President do you believe made the best contributions?


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