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SKEMA SBP PAPER 2 ESSAY PART C NO. 9, 10. BY USING SUITABLE EXAMPLES, STATE 2 APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRALIZATION IN DAILY LIFE [ 4 MARKS] Essay part c)

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Presentation on theme: "SKEMA SBP PAPER 2 ESSAY PART C NO. 9, 10. BY USING SUITABLE EXAMPLES, STATE 2 APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRALIZATION IN DAILY LIFE [ 4 MARKS] Essay part c)"— Presentation transcript:

1 SKEMA SBP PAPER 2 ESSAY PART C NO. 9, 10

2 BY USING SUITABLE EXAMPLES, STATE 2 APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRALIZATION IN DAILY LIFE [ 4 MARKS] Essay part c)

3 1.Use ammonia to prevent latex from coagulate 4. Use antacid /sodium hydrogen carbonate to neutralise acid in stomach of gastric patients 2. Use lime /quick lime (calcium oxide)/ slaked lime (calcium hydroxide), chalk (calcium carbonate) to neutralise acidic soil 3. Use magnesium hydroxide / toothpaste to neutralise acid produced by bacteria in our mouth

4 RUB BEE STING OR ANT STINGS ( WHICH IS ACIDIC)WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE RUB WASP STING ( WHICH IS ALKALINE ) WITH VINEGAR Any 2 applications ( 4 marks)

5 B) BY USING ONE NAMED EXAMPLE FOR EACH ALKALI, EXPLAIN WHY THE PH VALUES OF THE ALKALIS ARE DIFFERENT ( 6 MARKS)

6 NOTES ON PH VALUES AND CONC OF H + IONS AND OH - ION THE HIGHER THE CONC OF H + ION, THE ……..THE PH VALUE SO STRONG ACID HAS A … … PH VALUE THAN A WEAK ACID OF THE SAME CONCENTRATION THE HIGHER THE CONC OF OH - ION, THE …..THE PH VALUE SO STRONG ALKALI HAS A ……. PH VALUE THAN A WEAK ALKALI OF THE SAME CONCENTRATION lower higher lower

7 Example of R ; sodium hydroxide solution/ litium hydroxide solution/ potassium hydroxide solution (any strong alkali) R ionised completely in water and produced high concentration of OH - ions Example of Q : ammonia aqueous / solution ( weak alkali) Q ionised partially in water and produce low concentration of OH- ions the higher the concentration of OH – ions in R the higher the pH values

8 SOLUTION X AND SOLUTION Y ARE USED TO PREPARE BARIUM CARBONATE SALT DESCRIBE THE PREPARATION OF BARIUM CARBONATE SALT IN THE LABORATORY [ 10 MARKS] Barium carbonate is insoluble salt

9 NOTES – SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE SALTS SolubleInsoluble sulphates Chlorides carbonates nitrates All except PCB, PbSO 4, CaSO 4, BaSO 4 All except PAH, PbCl 2, AgCl, HgCl 2 KAN, K 2 CO 3, Na 2 CO 3, (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 All except All

10 NOTES ON METHODS TO PREPARE SALTS KAN salts Soluble salts Not KAN salts Insoluble salts Titration method Hot acid + excess solid ( metal/metal oxide/metal hydroxide/metal carbonates) method Precipitation or double decomposition

11 STATE WHICH METHOD TO USE FOR THE PREPARATION OF THESE SALTS BARIUM SULPHATE Precipitation Sodium nitrate Titration Zinc chloride Hot acid + excess ( zinc/ zinc oxide/ zinc hydroxide/ zinc carbonate Copper(II) sulphate Silver chloride Potassium sulphate Hot acid + excess ( copper oxide/ copper(II) hydroxide/ copper(II) carbonate Precipitation Titration notes

12 TO PREPARE SALT SOLUBLE SALT INSOLUBLE SALT KAN SALTSNOT KAN SALTS notes

13 solution 1 is barium nitrate solution 50 cm 3 of 1.0 moldm -3 Soln 2 is sodium carbonate solution 50 cm 3 of 1.0 moldm -3 Pour solution 1 into a beaker Add solution 2 into the beaker with solution 1 Stir the mixture using glass rod Filter the mixture Rinse the residue with distilled water Dry the residue in between sheet of filter papers to dry

14 EQUATION Ba(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 2 CO 3  BaCO 3 + 2NaNO 3

15 10 A) COMPOUND A AND B BURNT COMPLETELY IN OXYGEN O PRODUCE CARBON DIOXIDE AND WATER A) NAME COMPOUND B WHY COMPOUND B PRODUCE MORE SOOT [ 4 MARKS] 1- hexene or hex-1-ene % of C in compound B = 6C/ C 6 H 12 =12x6/ 6(12) + 12(1) = 72/84 = 86% % of C in compound B is more than in compound A % of C in comp A = 6C/ C 6 H 14 =12x6/ 6(12) + 14(1) = 72/86 = 84%

16 NOTES PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COMPOUND ETHANE OR ETHENE Colourless gas, low mp and bp, NOT dissolve in water, NOT conduct electricity

17 NOTES PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COMPOUND ETHANOL Colourless liquid Volatile liquid low mp and bp, Miscible in water, NOT conduct electricity

18 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COMPOUND ETHANOIC ACID Colourless liquid Volatile liquid low mp and bp, dissolve in water, NOT conduct electricity in glacial form, but conduct electricity in aqueous form NOTES

19 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COMPOUND ETHYL ETHANOATE Colourless liquid, Sweet smelling low mp and bp, volatile liquid, NOT dissolve in water, NOT conduct electricity Floats on water Less dense than water NOTES

20 B) STATE ONE PHYSICAL PROPERTY OF COMPOUND K. DESCRIBE BRIEFLY A CHEMICAL TEST TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN COMPOUND J AND COMPOUND K [ 6 MARKS] MISCIBLE IN WATER LOW MELTING POINT AND BOILING POINT DOES NOT CONDUCT ELECTRICITY VOLATILE COLOURLESS LIQUID COMPOUND K IS ETHANOL

21 EASY CHEMICAL TEST FOR CARBON COMPOUNDS ALKENE ALCOHOL CARBOXYLIC ACID notes Add bromine water, brown bromine colour decolourise Add acidified K 2 Cr 2 O 7 and warm Orange colour change to green Add in a few marble chips, pass the gas through lime water, turns milky

22 DESCRIBE BRIEFLY A CHEMICAL TEST TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN COMPOUND J AND COMPOUND K [ 6 MARKS] Pour 2 cm 3 of compound J into a test tube Add a few drops of acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution Warm slowly, Observe colour change Repeat the procedure above with compound K If acidified potassium dichromate solution change from orange to green, then the compound is alcohol J is ethanoic acid K is ethanol

23 DESCRIBE HOW TO PREPARE AN ALKENE FROM A NAMED ALCOHOL THROUGH DEHYDRATION PROCESS. IN YOUR DESCRIPTION, INCLUDE THE DIAGRAM OF THE APPARATUS SET UP AND BALANCED CHEMICAL EQUATION FOR THE REACTION [ 10 MARKS]

24 2. Place glass wool in a boiling tube 3. Add a few drops of ethanol to the glass wool 4. Clamp the boiling tube horizontally 5. Place a porcelain chips in the middle of the boiling tube 6. Heat the porcelain chips strongly 7. Heat the ethanol 8. Collect the gas produced in a test tube 9. Equation: C 2 H 5 OH → C 2 H 4 + H 2 O

25 HOMEWORK 1) COMPLETE SBP – PAPER 3 – ALL QUESTIONS FOR TOMORROW AT 10 PAGI 2) READ UP PLANNING EXPERIMENT- 6 EXAMPLES WITH ANSWERS 3) READ UP ESSAY AND ANSWERS MARA SECTION B AND C


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