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F4CHEMISTRY ATMOSPHERE OCEAN ROCKS & MINERALS. PLANET EARTH (matter) GASES IN THE AIR COMPOUNDS IN SEA WATER COMPOUNDS OF METALS.

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Presentation on theme: "F4CHEMISTRY ATMOSPHERE OCEAN ROCKS & MINERALS. PLANET EARTH (matter) GASES IN THE AIR COMPOUNDS IN SEA WATER COMPOUNDS OF METALS."— Presentation transcript:

1 F4CHEMISTRY ATMOSPHERE OCEAN ROCKS & MINERALS

2 PLANET EARTH (matter) GASES IN THE AIR COMPOUNDS IN SEA WATER COMPOUNDS OF METALS

3 MATTER (substance) Gas Solid Liquid (solution) ATMOSPHERE EARTH OCEAN \

4 THE ATMOSPHERE Atmosphere Earth AIR

5 AIR (composition) NITROGEN(78%) OXYGEN(21%) NOBLE GASES(1%) CARBON DIOXIDE( %) WATER VAPOUR OTHERS

6 AIR (separating gases) Liquefaction of air AIR (g) → AIR (l) Fractional distillation of liquid air (Fractionating column) Nitrogen (g) (bp=-196 o C) AIR (l) Oxygen (g) (bp=-183 o C)

7 TEST FOR GASES OXYGEN RELIGHTS A GLOWING SPLINT NITROGEN NO SIMPLE TEST CARBON DIOXIDE TURNS LIME WATER TO MILKY Lime water (calcium hydroxide solution) Milky substance (calcium carbonate)

8 WORD EQUATION CARBON DIOXIDE turns LIME WATER to milky Carbon + Calcium → Calcium + water dioxide hydroxide carbonate (g) (aq)(s) (l)

9 TEST FOR GASES (cont.) CARBON DIOXIDE (excess) MILKY SOLUTION TURNS COLOURLESS Colourless solution (calcium hydrogencarbonate solution) CHLORINE Bleaches wet litmus paper

10 OCEAN OCEAN - SEA WATER SEA WATER - AQUEOUS SOLUTION SEA WATER CONTAINS WATER(96.5%) DISSOLVED SALTS(2.5%) Mostly common salt (sodium chloride) OTHERS (includes dissolved gases) (1%)

11 Obtain common salt from Sea water FILTRATION RESIDUE – mud, sand, solid particles FILTRATE – sea water EVAPORATION of the filtrate Dilute solution → Concentrated solution → Saturated solution CRYSTALLIZATION Cool slowly – to obtain large crystals of Salt (NaCl) Filtration – to obtain Salt

12 Obtain pure water from Sea water DISTILLATION Boiling Water (l) → Water (g) (water vapour) Condensing Water (g) → Water (l) (water vapour) Distillate - pure water / distilled water

13 TEST FOR COMMON SALT SALT IS AN IONIC COMPOUND CATION (from metals) Test – FLAME TEST ANION (from non-metals) Test – Chemical Test

14 FLAME TEST FOR CATIONS Nichrome wire Concentrated hydrochloric acid Bunsen burner Colour of flame Potassium compound Sodium compound Calcium compound

15 TEST FOR ANION (chloride) Silver nitrate solution & dilute nitric acid Add to a solution of chloride White precipitate appear White precipitate is SILVER CHLORIDE Word equation:

16 TEST FOR ANION (sulphate) Barium chloride solution & dilute hydrochloric acid Add to a solution of sulphate White precipitate appear White precipitate is BARIUM SULPHATE Word equation:

17 TEST FOR ANION (carbonate) Dilute hydrochloric acid Add to a solution of carbonate Effervescence Colourless gas is CARBON DIOXIDE Word equation:

18 TEST FOR WATER Dry cobalt(II) chloride paper (blue) Water turns blue cobalt(II) chloride paper pink.

19 ELEMENTS OF WATER COMPOUND → ELEMENTS Word equation WATER → OXYGEN + HYDROGEN (Compound)(Elements of water) ELECTRICITY is required SOURCE OF ELECTRICITY (CELL) POSITIVE ELECTRODE (+) NEGATIVE ELECTRODE (-) The process is ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER

20 Dissolved salts in Sea water Dissolved salts Sodium chloride(NaCl) Magnesium chloride(MgCl 2 ) Potassium sulphate(K 2 SO 4 ) Calcium chloride(CaCl 2 ) Dissolved ions (Dissolved ions of Na +, Cl -, Mg 2+, SO 4 2-, K +, Ca 2+ )

21 Electrolysis of Sea water Sea water is a mixture Water + dissolved Salts Substances from electrolysis of sea water using carbon electrodes: Hydrogen (at the negative electrode) Chlorine (at the positive electrode) Sodium hydroxide (in the solution)

22 EARTH ’ S CRUST (Minerals) ROCK is a mixture of MINERALS MINERALS CompoundsElements Compounds of metals Compounds of non-metals Al 2 O 3 CaCO 3 SiO 2 Gold Silver

23 ORES ORE Rock containing compounds of metals Examples of Ore Bauxite (aluminium ore) Haematite (iron ore) Cinnabar (mercury ore)

24 EXTRACTION OF METALS FROM ORES Physical separation Heating of ore Heating the ore with carbon Electrolysis of molten ore

25 CHALK, LIMESTONE, MARBLE Calcium carbonate exists in 3 forms: Chalk Limestone Marble Formation of chalk Skeleton or shells of dead sea animals High pressure or temperature Long time

26 Investigating Calcium carbonate Action of heat CalciumCalcium+ carbon carbonateoxide dioxide Action of dilute hydrochloric acid Effervescence Calcium chloride, carbon dioxide, water Action of water Insoluble in water

27 LIMESTONE and related compounds LIMESTONE Calcium carbonate ( formula) QUICKLIME Calcium oxide ( formula) SLAKED LIME Calcium hydroxide ( formula) LIMEWATER Saturated solution of calcium hydroxide (formula )

28 Further reactions Calcium oxide reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble in water Limewater is a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide Limewater can be used to test for carbon dioxide gas (The milky substance is calcium carbonate)

29 EROSION Erosion is a complicated process Broken down into smaller pieces Changed into other material Lost of surface material Causes of erosion Heat Rain (acid rain) Wind, running water, gravity

30 FORMATION OF LIMESTONE CAVES Heat decomposes limestone forms calcium oxide and carbon dioxide Acid rain reacts with limestone forms salt and carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide dissolves in rain water to form carbonic acid) Limestone is slightly soluble in water


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