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Ions In Solution.

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Presentation on theme: "Ions In Solution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ions In Solution

2 The pH scale Hydrogen Ions make acidic solutions
Hydroxide ions make basic/alkaline solutions. Bases are substances that can neutralise acids. They are usually metal oxides or metal hydroxides. Alkalis are soluble bases Alkaline Neutral Acid

3 Neutralisation H+ (aq) + OH-(aq) -> H2O (l)
The acid reacts with the alkali to form a salt and water which is a neutral solution. The hydrogen ions in the acid join with the hydroxide ions in the alkali to form a neutral water molecule. The gas in the acid reacts with the metal or ammonium in the alkali to form an ionic salt. E.g. Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide -> sodium chloride +water HCl(aq) NaOH(aq) > NaCl(aq) H20 (l)

4 Reactions of Salts Acid + Metal -> a salt + hydrogen
E.g. Sulphuric acid + potassium -> potassium sulphate + hydrogen This is a displacement reaction Acid + Base -> a salt + water E.g. Sulphuric acid + sodium oxide -> sodium sulphate + water This is a Neutralisation reaction Acid + Alkali -> a salt + water E.g. Sulphuric acid + potassium hydroxide -> potassium sulphate + water This is a neutralisation reaction Acid + Carbonate -> a salt + water + carbon dioxide E.g. Sulphuric acid + copper carbonate -> copper sulphate + water + carbon dioxide

5 This comes from the acid
Naming Salts type of metal or ammonium in the base/alkali/metal/carbonate which reacts with the acid This comes from the acid Sodium Chloride Remember Hydrochloric acid makes chloride salts Sulphuric acid makes sulphates Nitric acid makes nitrates

6 Precipitation Reactions
This is a reaction where a solid insoluble salt is produced when two soluble salt solutions are mixed together. This type of reaction is important when we want to remove heavy metal ions from polluted water. E.g. Lead nitrate + Sodium chloride -> lead chloride + sodium nitrate Pb(NO3)2(aq) NaCl(aq) > PbCl2(s) NaNO3(aq) E.g. Silver nitrate + potassium iodide -> silver iodide + potassium nitrate AgNO3(aq) KI2(aq) > AgI(s) KNO3(aq)

7 Questions Name the salt which is produced when hydrochloric acid reacts with ammonium hydroxide. Which ions make acidic solutions? What is an alkali? Write the balanced symbol equation for sulphuric acid + potassium. Include the state symbols What is produced in a precipitation reaction? What is the equation for a neutralisation reaction?

8 Answers Ammonium Chloride Hydrogen Ions A soluble base
H2SO4(aq) + K(s) -> KSO4(aq) + H2(g)_ An insoluble salt H+ (aq) + OH-(aq) -> H2O (l)

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