Presentation on theme: "HIGHER CHEMISTRY REVISION."— Presentation transcript:
1 HIGHER CHEMISTRY REVISION. Unit 3 :- Acids and Bases1. A student added 50 cm3 of 4.0 mol l-1 hydrochloric acid to 4.0 g ofmagnesium ribbon.(a) The balanced equation for the reaction is:Mg(s) HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) H2 (g)Show by calculation which reactant is in excess. (a)4 g of Mg = 4/24.3 = mol.50 cm3 of 4.0 mol l-1 HCL =50/1000 x = 0.2 molFrom equation mol of Mg would need 2 x = 0.33 mol of HCl.We only have 0.2 mol HClso the Mg is in excess.(b) The experiment was repeated under the same conditions usingethanoic acid instead of hydrochloric acid.Circle the correct words in the table to show the results forethanoic acid.Ethanoic acid Rate of reaction faster / same / slowerVolume of gas produced more / same/ lessslowersame
2 2. Potassium cyanide, KCN, can be made by the reaction of an acid with an alkali. A solution of the salt has a pH of 8.(a) What is the concentration of H+(aq), in mol l-1, in the solution?(b) What can be concluded about the strengths of the acid and the alkali usedin the reaction?(c) Write the formula for the acid used in the reaction.1 x 10-8 mol l-1.Weak acid and strong base.(c) KCN3. Compounds can have different structures and properties.NH4NO BaSO Na2CO3SiO2 K2O P2O5Identify the salt which dissolves in water to form an alkaline solution.Na2CO3
3 3. Two flasks contained equal volumes of 0 3. Two flasks contained equal volumes of 0.1 mol l-1 hydrochloric acid and 0.1 mol l -1ethanoic acid.Identify the two true statements about both solutions.A They give the same colour with Universal Indicator solution..B They have a pH less than 7.C They conduct electricity equally well.D The have equal concentrations of hydrogen ions.E They react at the same rate with magnesium.F They neutralise the same number of moles of sodium hydroxide.B and F4. A solution of mol l-1 hydrochloric acid can be described as adilute solution of a strong acid.What is meant by a strong acid?(b) What is the pH of the mol l-1 hydrochloric acid used in theexperiment?(a) A strong acid is fully ionised in aqueous solution.[H+(aq)] = 1 x 10-3 mol l-1.pH = 3.
4 5. Calcium hydroxyapatite makes up 95% of tooth enamel. Tooth decay is caused when tooth enamel is attacked by acid in the mouth.(a) One of the acids which attacks tooth enamel is 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, which has themolecular formula C3H6O3.Draw the structural formula for this acid.(b) Calcium hydroxyapatite reacts with acid in the mouth as shown by the followingbalanced equation.Ca10(PO4) 6(OH) H+ 10Ca H2O HPO4x-calcium hydroxyapatiteWhat is the value of x?(c) The pH of a solution in the mouth is 5.What is the concentration of hydrogen ions, in mol l-1, in this solution?H H OHH-C –C - C =OH Hx = 2(c) 1 x 10-5 mol l-1.6. Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is soluble in water.How does the pH of a solution of ammonium chloride compare with the pH ofwater?Ammonium chloride has a lower pH as it is an acidic solution – salt of strong acid and weak base.