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1 ACQUISITION AND DISPOSITION OF PROPERTY, PLANT, AND EQUIPMENT.

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Presentation on theme: "1 ACQUISITION AND DISPOSITION OF PROPERTY, PLANT, AND EQUIPMENT."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 ACQUISITION AND DISPOSITION OF PROPERTY, PLANT, AND EQUIPMENT

2 2 JOIN KHALID AZIZ  FRESH CLASSES  ICap module b & d  FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING, ECONOMICS & COST ACCOUNTING  INDIVIDUAL & GROUPS

3 3 JOIN KHALID AZIZ  ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM.  FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA.  COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA.  CONTACT:    R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN.

4 4 1.Describe property, plant, and equipment. 2.Identify the costs to include in initial valuation of property, plant, and equipment. 3.Describe the accounting problems associated with self- constructed assets. 4.Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. 5.Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. 6.Describe the accounting treatment for costs subsequent to acquisition. 7.Describe the accounting treatment for the disposal of property, plant, and equipment. Learning Objectives

5 5 Acquisition Acquisition costs: Land, buildings, equipment Self- constructed assets Interest costs Observations Valuation Cost Subsequent to Acquisition Dispositions Cash discounts Deferred contracts Lump-sum purchases Stock issuance Nonmonetary exchanges Contributions Other valuation methods Sale Involuntary conversion Miscellaneous problems Additions Improvements and replacements Rearrangeme nt and reinstallation RepairsSummary Acquisition and Disposition of Property, Plant, and Equipment

6 6 “Used in operations” and not for resale. Long-term in nature and usually depreciated. Possess physical substance. Property, plant, and equipment includes land, buildings, and equipment (machinery, furniture, tools). Major characteristics include: Property, Plant, and Equipment LO 1 Describe property, plant, and equipment.

7 7 Historical cost is reliable. Companies should not anticipate gains and losses but should recognize gains and losses only when the asset is sold. Valued at Historical Cost, reasons include: Acquisition of PP&E LO 2 Identify the costs to include in initial valuation of property, plant, and equipment. APB Opinion No. 6 states, “property, plant, and equipment should not be written up to reflect appraisal, market, or current values which are above cost.”

8 8 Includes all costs to acquire land and ready it for use. Costs typically include: Cost of Land Acquisition of PP&E LO 2 Identify the costs to include in initial valuation of property, plant, and equipment. (1)the purchase price; (2)closing costs, such as title to the land, attorney’s fees, and recording fees; (3)costs of grading, filling, draining, and clearing; (4)assumption of any liens, mortgages, or encumbrances on the property; and (5)Additional land improvements that have an indefinite life.

9 9 Includes all costs related directly to acquisition or construction. Costs typically include: Cost of Buildings LO 2 Identify the costs to include in initial valuation of property, plant, and equipment. (1)materials, labor, and overhead costs incurred during construction and (2)professional fees and building permits. Acquisition of PP&E

10 10 Include all costs incurred in acquiring the equipment and preparing it for use. Costs typically include: Cost of Equipment LO 2 Identify the costs to include in initial valuation of property, plant, and equipment. (1)purchase price, (2)freight and handling charges (3)insurance on the equipment while in transit, (4)cost of special foundations if required, (5)assembling and installation costs, and (6)costs of conducting trial runs. Acquisition of PP&E

11 11 E10-1 (variation): The following expenditures and receipts are related to land, land improvements, and buildings acquired for use in a business enterprise. Determine how the following should be classified: Acquisition of PP&E (a)Money borrowed to pay building contractor (b)Payment for construction from note proceeds (c)Cost of land fill and clearing (d)Delinquent real estate taxes on property assumed (e)Premium on 6-month insurance policy during construction (f)Refund of 1-month insurance premium because construction completed early Classification Notes Payable Building Land Land Building (Building) LO 2 Identify the costs to include in initial valuation of property, plant, and equipment.

12 12 E10-1 (variation): The following expenditures and receipts are related to land, land improvements, and buildings acquired for use in a business enterprise. Determine how the following should be classified: Acquisition of PP&E (g) Architect’s fee on building (h) Cost of real estate purchased as a plant site (land $200,000 and building $50,000) (i) Commission fee paid to real estate agency (j) Installation of fences around property (k) Cost of razing and removing building (l)Proceeds from salvage of demolished building (m)Cost of parking lots and driveways (n)Cost of trees and shrubbery (permanent) Costs of: Building LO 2 Identify the costs to include in initial valuation of property, plant, and equipment. Land Land Land Improvements Land (Land) Land

13 13 Self-Constructed Assets Acquisition of PP&E Costs typically include: (1)Materials and direct labor (2)Overhead can be handled in two ways: 1.Assign no fixed overhead 2.Assign a portion of all overhead to the construction process. Companies use the second method extensively. LO 3 Describe the accounting problems associated with self-constructed assets.

14 14 Three approaches have been suggested to account for the interest incurred in financing the construction. Interest Costs During Construction Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Capitalize no interest during construction Capitalize actual costs incurred during construction (with modification) Capitalize all costs of funds GAAP $ 0 $ ? Increase to Cost of Asset Illustration 10-1

15 15 GAAP requires — capitalizing actual interest (with modification). Consistent with historical cost — all costs incurred to bring the asset to the condition for its intended use. Capitalization considers three items: 1.Qualifying assets. 2.Capitalization period. 3.Amount to capitalize. Interest Costs During Construction Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization.

16 16 Require a period of time to get them ready for their intended use. Two types of assets: Assets under construction for a company’s own use. Assets intended for sale or lease that are constructed or produced as discrete projects. Qualifying Assets Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization.

17 17 Capitalization Period Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Begins when: 1. 1.Expenditures for the asset have been made Activities for readying the asset are in progress Interest costs are being incurred. Ends when: The asset is substantially complete and ready for use.

18 18 Amount to Capitalize Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Capitalize the lesser of: 1. 1.Actual interest costs 2. 2.Avoidable interest - the amount of interest that could have been avoided if expenditures for the asset had not been made.

19 19 Interest Capitalization Illustration: KC Corporation borrowed $200,000 at 12% interest from State Bank on Jan. 1, 2011, for specific purposes of constructing special-purpose equipment to be used in its operations. Construction on the equipment began on Jan. 1, 2011, and the following expenditures were made prior to the project’s completion on Dec. 31, 2011: Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Other general debt existing on Jan. 1, 2011: $500,000, 14%, 10-year bonds payable $300,000, 10%, 5-year note payable

20 20 Step 1 - Determine which assets qualify for capitalization of interest. Special purpose equipment qualifies because it requires a period of time to get ready and it will be used in the company’s operations. Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Step 2 - Determine the capitalization period. The capitalization period is from Jan. 1, 2011 through Dec. 31, 2011, because expenditures are being made and interest costs are being incurred during this period while construction is taking place.

21 21 Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Step 3 - Compute weighted-average accumulated expenditures. A company weights the construction expenditures by the amount of time (fraction of a year or accounting period) that it can incur interest cost on the expenditure.

22 22 Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Step 4 - Compute the Actual and Avoidable Interest. Selecting Appropriate Interest Rate: 1. 1.For the portion of weighted-average accumulated expenditures that is less than or equal to any amounts borrowed specifically to finance construction of the assets, use the interest rate incurred on the specific borrowings For the portion of weighted-average accumulated expenditures that is greater than any debt incurred specifically to finance construction of the assets, use a weighted average of interest rates incurred on all other outstanding debt during the period.

23 23 Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Step 4 - Compute the Actual and Avoidable Interest. Avoidable Interest Weighted-average interest rate on general debt Actual Interest $100,000 $800,000 = 12.5%

24 24 Step 5 – Capitalize the lesser of Avoidable interest or Actual interest. Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Journal entry to Capitalize Interest: Equipment 30,250 Interest expense30,250

25 25 Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Comprehensive Illustration: On November 1, 2009, Shalla Company contracted Pfeifer Construction Co. to construct a building for $1,400,000 on land costing $100,000 (purchased from the contractor and included in the first payment). Shalla made the following payments to the construction company during 2010.

26 26 JOIN KHALID AZIZ  ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM.  FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA.  COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA.  CONTACT:    R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN.

27 27 Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Pfeifer Construction completed the building, ready for occupancy, on December 31, Shalla had the following debt outstanding at December 31, Compute the weighted-average accumulated expenditures during 2010.

28 28 Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Compute the weighted-average accumulated expenditures during Illustration 10-4 Solution on notes page

29 29 Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Compute the avoidable interest. Illustration 10-5 Solution on notes page

30 30 Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Compute the actual interest cost, which represents the maximum amount of interest that it may capitalize during 2010, Illustration 10-6 The interest cost that Shalla capitalizes is the lesser of $120,228 (avoidable interest) and $239,500 (actual interest), or $120,228.

31 31 Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. Shalla records the following journal entries during 2010: January 1Land 100,000 Building (or CIP) 110,000 Cash 210,000 March 1Building 300,000 Cash 300,000 May 1Building 540,000 Cash 540,000 December 31Building 450,000 Cash 450,000 Building (Capitalized Interest) 120,228 Interest Expense 119,272 Cash 239,500

32 32 Acquisition of PP&E LO 4 Describe the accounting problems associated with interest capitalization. At December 31, 2010, Shalla discloses the amount of interest capitalized either as part of the nonoperating section of the income statement or in the notes accompanying the financial statements. Illustration 10-7 Illustration 10-8

33 33 Companies should record property, plant, and equipment: at the fair value of what they give up or at the fair value of the asset received, whichever is more clearly evident. Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets.

34 34 Cash Discounts — whether taken or not — generally considered a reduction in the cost of the asset. Deferred-Payment Contracts — Assets, purchased through long term credit, are recorded at the present value of the consideration exchanged. Lump-Sum Purchases — Allocate the total cost among the various assets on the basis of their fair market values. Issuance of Stock — The market value of the stock issued is a fair indication of the cost of the property acquired. Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets.

35 35 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Ordinarily accounted for on the basis of: the fair value of the asset given up or the fair value of the asset received, whichever is clearly more evident. Exchanges of Nonmonetary Assets Companies should recognize immediately any gains or losses on the exchange when the transaction has commercial substance.

36 36 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Accounting for Exchanges * If cash is 25% or more of the fair value of the exchange, recognize entire gain because earnings process is complete. Illustration 10-10

37 37 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Companies recognize a loss immediately whether the exchange has commercial substance or not. Rationale: Companies should not value assets at more than their cash equivalent price; if the loss were deferred, assets would be overstated. Exchanges - Loss Situation

38 38 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Illustration: Information Processing, Inc. trades its used machine for a new model at Jerrod Business Solutions Inc. The exchange has commercial substance. The used machine has a book value of $8,000 (original cost $12,000 less $4,000 accumulated depreciation) and a fair value of $6,000. The new model lists for $16,000. Jerrod gives Information Processing a trade-in allowance of $9,000 for the used machine. Information Processing computes the cost of the new asset as follows. Illustration 10-11

39 39 Equipment 13,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment 4,000 Loss on Disposal of Equipment 2,000 Equipment 12,000 Cash 7,000 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Illustration: Information Processing records this transaction as follows: Illustration Loss on Disposal

40 40 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Exchanges - Gain Situation Has Commercial Substance. Company usually records the cost of a nonmonetary asset acquired in exchange for another nonmonetary asset at the fair value of the asset given up, and immediately recognizes a gain.

41 41 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Illustration: Interstate Transportation Company exchanged a number of used trucks plus cash for a semi-truck. The used trucks have a combined book value of $42,000 (cost $64,000 less $22,000 accumulated depreciation). Interstate’s purchasing agent, experienced in the second-hand market, indicates that the used trucks have a fair market value of $49,000. In addition to the trucks, Interstate must pay $11,000 cash for the semi-truck. Interstate computes the cost of the semi-truck as follows. Illustration 10-13

42 42 Semi-truck 60,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Trucks 22,000 Trucks 64,000 Gain on disposal 7,000 Cash 11,000 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Illustration: Interstate records the exchange transaction as follows: Illustration Gain on Disposal

43 43 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Exchanges - Gain Situation Lacks Commercial Substance—No Cash Received. Now assume that Interstate Transportation Company exchange lacks commercial substance. That is, the economic position of Interstate did not change significantly as a result of this exchange. In this case, Interstate defers the gain of $7,000 and reduces the basis of the semi-truck.

44 44 Semi-truck 53,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Trucks 22,000 Trucks 64,000 Cash 11,000 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Illustration: Interstate records the exchange transaction as follows: Illustration 10-15

45 45 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Exchanges - Gain Situation Lacks Commercial Substance—Some Cash Received. When a company receives cash (sometimes referred to as “boot”) in an exchange that lacks commercial substance, it may immediately recognize a portion of the gain. The general formula for gain recognition when an exchange includes some cash is as follows: Illustration 10-16

46 46 JOIN KHALID AZIZ  ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM.  FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA.  COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA.  CONTACT:    R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN.

47 47 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Illustration: Queenan Corporation traded in used machinery with a book value of $60,000 (cost $110,000 less accumulated depreciation $50,000) and a fair value of $100,000. It receives in exchange a machine with a fair value of $90,000 plus cash of $10,000. Illustration 10-17

48 48 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. The portion of the gain a company recognizes is the ratio of monetary assets (cash in this case) to the total consideration received. Illustration Solution on notes page

49 49 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Queenan would record the following entry. Illustration Cash10,000 Machine54,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Machine50,000 Machine 110,000 Gain on disposal of machine4,000

50 50 E10-19 variation: Carlos Arruza Company exchanged equipment used in its manufacturing operations plus $3,000 in cash for similar equipment used in the operations of Tony LoBianco Company. The following information pertains to the exchange. LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Instructions: Prepare the journal entries to record the exchange on the books of both companies. Valuation of PP&E

51 51 Calculation of Gain or Loss LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. When a company receives cash (sometimes referred to as “boot”) in an exchange that lacks commercial substance, it may immediately recognize a portion of the gain. Valuation of PP&E

52 52 Has Commercial Substance LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Arruza: Equipment 12,500 Cash3,000 Accumulated depreciation19,000 Equipment28,000 Gain on exchange6,500 LoBianco: Equipment 15,500 Accumulated depreciation10,000 Equipment28,000 Cash3,000 Loss on exchange5,500 Valuation of PP&E

53 53 Lacks Commercial Substance LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Arruza: Equipment (12,500 – 5,242)7,258 Cash3,000 Accumulated depreciation19,000 Equipment28,000 Gain on exchange1,258 Cash Received Cash Received + FMV of Assets Received x Total Gain = Recognized Gain $3,000 $3,000 + $12,500 x$6,500=$1,258 Deferred gain = $6,500 – 1,258 = $5,242 Valuation of PP&E

54 54 Lacks Commercial Substance LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. LoBianco (no change): Equipment 15,500 Accumulated depreciation10,000 Equipment28,000 Cash3,000 Loss on exchange5,500 Companies recognize a loss immediately whether the exchange has commercial substance or not. Valuation of PP&E

55 55 Summary of Gain and Loss Recognition on Exchanges of Nonmonetary Assets Lacks Commercial Substance Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Illustration 10-20

56 56 Valuation of PP&E LO 5 Understand accounting issues related to acquiring and valuing plant assets. Companies should use: the fair value of the asset to establish its value on the books and should recognize contributions received as revenues in the period received. Accounting for Contributions

57 57 Costs Subsequent to Acquisition LO 6 Describe the accounting treatment for costs subsequent to acquisition. In general, costs incurred to achieve greater future benefits should be capitalized, whereas expenditures that simply maintain a given level of services should be expensed. To capitalize costs, one of three conditions must be present: Useful life of the asset must be increased. Quantity of units produced from asset must be increased. Quality of units produced must be enhanced.

58 58 Costs Subsequent to Acquisition LO 6 Describe the accounting treatment for costs subsequent to acquisition. Additions Improvements and Replacements Rearrangement and Reinstallation Repairs Major Types of Expenditures

59 59 Costs Subsequent to Acquisition LO 6 Describe the accounting treatment for costs subsequent to acquisition. Illustration Summary

60 60 Disposition of PP&E LO 7 Describe the accounting treatment for the disposal of property, plant, and equipment. A company may retire plant assets voluntarily or dispose of them by  sale,  exchange,  involuntary conversion, or  abandonment. Depreciation must be taken up to the date of disposition.

61 61 Disposition of PP&E LO 7 Describe the accounting treatment for the disposal of property, plant, and equipment. Sale of Plant Assets BE10-14: Ottawa Corporation owns machinery that cost $20,000 when purchased on July 1, Depreciation has been recorded at a rate of $2,400 per year, resulting in a balance in accumulated depreciation of $8,400 at December 31, The machinery is sold on September 1, 2011, for $10,500. Prepare journal entries to a)update depreciation for 2011 and b)record the sale.

62 62 a) Depreciation for 2011 Depreciation expense ($2,400 x 8/12)1,600 Accumulated depreciation1,600 LO 7 Describe the accounting treatment for the disposal of property, plant, and equipment. b) Record the sale Cash10,500 Accumulated depreciation10,000 Machinery20,000 Gain on sale500 Disposition of Plant Assets * $8,400 + $1,600 = $10,000 *

63 63 Sometimes an asset’s service is terminated through some type of involuntary conversion such as fire, flood, theft, or condemnation. Companies report the difference between the amount recovered (e.g., from a condemnation award or insurance recovery), if any, and the asset’s book value as a gain or loss. They treat these gains or losses like any other type of disposition. Involuntary Conversion LO 7 Describe the accounting treatment for the disposal of property, plant, and equipment. Disposition of Plant Assets

64 64 If a company scraps or abandons an asset without any cash recovery, it recognizes a loss equal to the asset’s book value. If scrap value exists, the gain or loss that occurs is the difference between the asset’s scrap value and its book value. If an asset still can be used even though it is fully depreciated, it may be kept on the books at historical cost less depreciation. Miscellaneous Problems LO 7 Describe the accounting treatment for the disposal of property, plant, and equipment. Disposition of Plant Assets

65 65 JOIN KHALID AZIZ  ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM.  FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA.  COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA.  CONTACT:    R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN.


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