Presentation on theme: "Merchandise Inventory,"— Presentation transcript:
1Merchandise Inventory, Cost of Goods Sold, andGross MarginChapter 6
2Income Statements Revenue $758 Service revenue $XXX ExpensesOperating andadministrative expense XAmortization expense XIncome tax expense XNet income $ XService CompanyCentury 21 Real EstateIncome StatementFor the Year Ended December 31, 2002Revenue $758Cost of goods soldGross marginOperating expenses:Operating andadministrative expense XAmortization expense XIncome tax expense $ XNet income $ 4Merchandising CompanyThe Foranzi Group Ltd.Income StatementFor the Year Ended January 27, 2002
3Merchandising Company Balance SheetsCurrent assets:Cash $XShort-term investments XAccounts receivable, net XPrepaid expenses XService CompanyCentury 21 Real EstateBalance SheetDecember 31, 2002Current assets:Cash $ XShort-term investments XAccounts receivable, net XInventoryPrepaid expenses XMerchandising CompanyThe Foranzi Group Ltd.Balance SheetJanuary 27, 2002
4Accounting for Inventory Current assets:Cash $ XXXShort-terminvestments XXXAccounts receivable XXXInventory (1 Impala@$22,000) $22,000Prepaid expenses XXXGeneral Motors of CanadaBalance Sheet (partial)Sales revenue(2 $27,000) $54,000Cost of goods sold(2 $22,000) 44,000Gross margin $10,000General Motors of CanadaIncome Statement (partial)
5Gross Margin (Gross Profit) Sales revenues – Cost of goods sold= Gross margin (before operating expenses)Gross margin – Operating expenses= Net income
6Computing Cost Balance Sheet Cost of inventory on hand = Number of units on hand × unit costBalance SheetCost of goods sold= Number of units sold × unit costIncome Statement
7Use the cost-of-goods- Learning Objective 1Use the cost-of-goods-sold model.
8Cost of Goods Sold Model Beginninginventory$20Endinginventory$30Cost ofgoods sold$90Cost of goodsavailablefor sale$120Purchases$100
9How Much Inventory Should Be Purchased? Budgeted cost of goods sold $6,000+ Budgeted ending inventory 1,500= Budgeted cost of goodsavailable for sale $7,500– Actual beginning inventory 1,200= Budgeted purchases $6,300
10Learning Objective 2Account for inventorytransactions.
11Inventory Accounting Systems Periodic systems do not keep acontinuous record of inventory on hand.Perpetual systems maintain a running recordto show the inventory on hand at all times.
12Recording Transactions in the Perpetual System Debit InventoryCredit Cash or Accounts PayableDebit Cash or Accounts ReceivableCredit Sales RevenueDebit Cost of Goods SoldCredit Inventory
13Recording Transactions in the Perpetual System Purchase price of the inventory $600,000+ Freight-in ,000– Purchase returns – 25,000– Purchase allowances – 5,000– Purchase discounts – 14,000= Net purchases of inventory $560,000
14Recording Transactions and the T-Accounts Inventory ,000Accounts Payable ,000Purchased inventory on accountBeg. 100,000560,000InventoryAccounts Payable560,000
15Recording Transactions and the T-Accounts Sale on account $900,000 (cost $540,000):Accounts Receivable 900,000Sales Revenue ,000Cost of Goods Sold 540,000Inventory ,000
16Recording Transactions and the T-Accounts InventoryCost of Goods Sold540,000Beg. 100,000560,000120,000540,000
17Reporting in the Financial Statements Income Statement (partial)Sales revenue $900,000Cost of goods sold ,000Gross margin $360,000Ending Balance Sheet (partial)Current assets:Cash $ XXXShort-term investments XXXAccounts receivable, net XXXInventory ,000Prepaid expenses XXX
18Reporting in the Financial Statements Net purchases = Purchases+ Freight-in– Purchase returns & allowances– Purchases discountNet sales = Sales revenue– Sales returns & allowances– Sales discounts
19Learning Objective 3Analyze the variousinventory methods.
20What Goes Into Inventory Cost? The cost of any asset, such as inventory,is the sum of all the costs incurred tobring the asset to its intended use.Generally accepted inventory costing methods:Specific unit costWeighted-average costFirst-in, first-out (FIFO)Last-in, first-out (LIFO)
21Illustrative Data Beginning inventory (10 units @ $10) $100 No. 1 (25 $14 per unit) $350No. 2 (25 $18 per unitTotal purchasesCost of goods available for sale $900Ending inventory: 20 unitsCost of goods sold: 40 units
22Specific Unit Cost 5 Units @ $10 Cost of Goods Sold $ 50 350 180 $580 $ 50350180$58025 $1410 $18$900 – $580 = $320
23Weighted-Average $900 total cost ÷ 60 units = $15/unit Ending inventory = 20 × $15 = $300Cost of goods sold = 40 × $15 = $600
24First-In, First-Out Ending inventory cost 60 units Less units sold 40 Ending inventory 20 units20 units × $18 per unit = $360
25First-In, First-Out 10 Units @ $10 Cost of Goods Sold $100 350 90 $540
26Last-In, First-Out Ending inventory cost 60 units Less units sold 40 Ending inventory 20 units10 units × 10 = $10010 units × 14 = 140Total $240
27Last-In, First-Out 25 Units @ $18 Cost of Goods Sold $450 210 $660
28Income Effects of Inventory Methods Ending InventorySpecific unit cost $320Weighted-average $300FIFO $360LIFO $240
29Income Effects of Inventory Methods Cost of Goods SoldSpecific unit cost $580Weighted-average $600FIFO $540LIFO $660
35Comparison of Inventory Methods FIFO produces inventory profitsduring periods of inflation.LIFO allows managers tomanipulate net income.LIFO liquidation occurs wheninventory quantities fall below thelevel of the previous period resultingin higher net income.
36International Perspective LIFO is not allowed for taxpurposes in Canada.Almost no Canadian companiesuse LIFO.
37Accounting Principles and Inventories Consistency PrincipleBusinesses should use the sameaccounting methods and proceduresfrom one period to the next.A company may change inventorymethods, but it must apply thenew method retroactively, per GAAP.
38Accounting Principles and Inventories Disclosure PrincipleThe financial statements shouldreport enough information toenable an outsider to makeinformed decisionsabout the company.
39Accounting Principles and Inventories Materiality ConceptAn item is material if it has the potentialto alter a statement user’s decision.Materiality is specific tothe entity being evaluated.
40Accounting Principles and Inventories ConservatismErr on the sideof caution whenreporting any item inthe financial statements.
41Lower-of-Cost-or-Market Rule Inventory is reported at thelower of its historical costor market (replacement) value.If the replacement cost falls below itshistorical cost, the business must writedown the value of its inventory.
42Show how inventory errors affect cost of goods sold Objective 5Show how inventory errorsaffect cost of goods soldand income.
43Effects of Inventory Errors An error in the ending inventorycreates errors for cost of goodssold and gross margin.The current year’s ending inventoryis next year’s beginning inventory.
44Effects of Inventory Errors Period 1EndingInventoryOverstatedby $5,000Period 1BeginningInventoryOverstatedby $5,000Period 1CorrectSales revenueCost of goods sold:Beg. inventoryPurchasesCost of goodsavailable for saleEnding inventoryCost of goods soldGross margin$100,000$10,00050,000$60,000(15,000)45,000$ 55,000$100,000$15,00050,000$65,000(10,000)55,000$ 45,000$100,000$10,00050,000$60,000(10,000)$ 50,000
45percentage and inventory Learning Objective 6Use the gross marginpercentage and inventoryturnover to evaluatebusiness.
46Using the Financial Statements for Decision Making Gross margin percentage= Gross margin÷ Net sales revenueInventory turnover= Cost of goods sold÷ Average inventory
47Gross Margin on $1 of Sales for Two Merchandisers $1.00 —$0.75 —$0.50 —$0.25 —$0.00Grossmargin $0.17Grossmargin$0.61Cost ofgoods sold$0.83Cost ofgoods sold$0.39MagnaInt’l Inc.Pepsi Co.
48Reporting Inventory Transactions on the Cash Flow Statement Inventory transactions are operating activitiesbecause the purchase and sale of merchandisedrives a company’s operations.The purchase of inventory requires a cashpayment, and the sale a cash receipt.
49Estimate inventory by the gross margin method and the retail method. Learning Objective 7Estimate inventory by the gross margin method and the retail method.
50Estimating Inventory The gross margin method of estimating ending inventory is based on thecost-of-goods-sold model.Beginning inventory+ Purchases= Cost of goods available for sale– Ending inventory= Cost of goods sold
51Estimating Inventory Rearranging ending inventory and cost of goods sold makes the modeluseful for estimating ending inventory.Beginning inventory+ Purchases= Cost of goods available for sale– Cost of goods sold= Ending inventory
52Estimating Inventory Step 1 Step 2 + = – = Beginning inventory Net purchases+Goodsavailablefor sale=Cost ofgoodssold–Endinginventory=Step 2Goodsavailablefor sale
53Estimating Inventory Beginning inventory $14,000 Purchases 66,000 Cost of goods available for sale ,000Cost of goods sold:Net sales revenue $100,000Less estimated gross margin of 42% – 42,000Estimated cost of goods sold ,000Estimated cost of ending inventory $22,000
54Ethical Considerations Managers of companies whose profitsdo not meet shareholder expectationsare sometimes tempted to “cook thebooks” to increase reported income.What are some possibilities?1. Overstating ending inventory2. Creating fictitious sales revenue
55Appendix: Periodic System All purchases are recorded with a debitto Purchases, an expense account.A physical count of inventory at the end of theaccounting period will be needed to updatethe accounting records.