2Property, Plant & Equipment Property, plant, and equipment includes land, buildings, and equipment (machinery, furniture, tools).Major characteristics include:“Used in operations” and not for resale.Long-term in nature and usually depreciated.Possess physical substance.
3PP&E Historical Cost Valued at Historical Cost, reasons include: At acquisition, cost reflects fair value.Historical cost is reliable.Companies should not anticipate gains and losses but should recognize gains and losses only when the asset is sold.
4Cost of LandIncludes all costs to acquire land and ready it for use. Costs typically include:the purchase price;closing costs, such as title to the land, attorney’s fees, and recording fees;costs of grading, filling, draining, and clearing;assumption of any liens, mortgages, or encumbrances on the property; andAdditional land improvements that have an indefinite life.
5Cost of BuildingsIncludes all costs related directly to acquisition or construction.Costs typically include:materials, labor, and overhead costs incurred during construction andprofessional fees and building permits.
6Cost of EquipmentInclude all costs incurred in acquiring the equipment and preparing it for use.Costs typically include:purchase price,freight and handling chargesinsurance on the equipment while in transit,cost of special foundations if required,assembling and installation costs, andcosts of conducting trial runs.
7Acquisition CostsMoney borrowed to pay building contractor : Notes PayablePayment for construction from note proceeds: BuildingsCost of land fill and clearing: LandDelinquent real estate taxes on property assumed: LandPremium on insurance policy during construction: BuildingsRefund of 1-month insurance premium because construction completed early: (Buildings)
8Acquisition Costs (g) Architect’s fee on building: Buildings (h) Cost of real estate purchased as a plant site (land $200,000 and building $50,000): Land(i) Commission fee paid to real estate agency: Land(j) Installation of fences around property: Land Improvements(k) Cost of razing and removing building: LandProceeds from salvage of demolished building: (Land)Cost of parking lots and driveways: Land ImprovementsCost of trees and shrubbery (permanent): Land
9Self-constructed Assets Costs typically include:Materials and direct laborOverhead can be handled in two ways:Assign no fixed overheadAssign a portion of all overhead to the construction process.Companies use the second method extensively.
10Interest Costs During Construction Three approaches have been suggested to account for the interest incurred in financing the construction.1. Capitalize no interest during construction2. Capitalize actual costs incurred during construction (GAAP)3. Capitalize all cost of fundsGAAP requires — capitalizing actual interest (with modification).Consistent with historical cost — all costs incurred to bring the asset to the condition for its intended use.
11Interest Costs During Construction Richard Company begins construction on a building early in 2008 and completes construction by the end of the year. Richard incurred total interest costs on borrowing during 2008 in the amount of $325,000. It determines that $165,000 of these interest costs is attributable to expenditures on the new building.Buildings 165,000Interest Expense 160,000Cash ,000
12Other Valuation Issues Companies should record property, plant, and equipment:at the fair value of what they give up orat the fair value of the asset received,whichever is more clearly evident.Cash Discounts — whether taken or not — generally considered a reduction in the cost of the asset.
13Acquiring PP&E Lump-Sum Purchases Allocate the total cost among the various assets on the basis of their fair market values.Issuance of StockThe market value of the stock issued is a fair indication of the cost of the property acquired.
14Contributions of PP&E Companies should use: the fair value of the asset to establish its value on the books andshould recognize contributions received as revenues in the period received.
15Costs Subsequent to Acquisition In general, costs incurred to achieve greater future benefits should be capitalized, whereas expenditures that simply maintain a given level of services should be expensed.To capitalize costs, one of three conditions must be present:Useful life of the asset must be increased.Quantity of units produced from asset must be increased.Quality of units produced must be enhanced.
16Costs Subsequent to Acquisition Major Types of ExpendituresAdditionsImprovements and replacementsRearrangement and reinstallationRepairs[See Illustration 10-6, in the text, for summary of normal accounting treatment for these expenditures.]
17DepreciationDepreciation is the accounting process of allocating the cost of tangible assets to expense in a systematic and rational manner to those periods expected to benefit from the use of the asset.Allocating costs of long-term assets:Fixed assets = Depreciation expenseIntangibles = Amortization expenseNatural resources = Depletion expense
18Depreciation Factors Involved in the Depreciation Process What depreciable base is to be used?What is the asset’s useful life?What method of cost allocation is best?
19Depreciation MethodsThe profession requires the method employed be “systematic and rational.” Examples include:Activity method (units of use or production).Straight-line method.Sum-of-the-years’-digits.Declining-balance method.
20Calculating Depreciation Robert Parish Corporation purchased a new machine for its assembly process on September 30, The cost of this machine was $117,900. The company estimated that the machine would have a salvage value of $12,900 at the end of its service life. Its life is estimated at 5 years and its working hours are estimated at 1,000 hours. Year-end is December 31.(a) Straight-line depreciation.(b) Activity method.(c) Sum-of-the-years’-digits.(d) Double-declining balance.
24Double Declining Balance (note: calculations are incorrect)
25Depreciation Issues Changes in Depreciation Rate How should depreciation be computed for partial periods?Companies normally compute depreciation on the basis of the nearest full month.How are revisions in depreciation rates handled?Changes in Depreciation RateAccounted for in the period of change and future periods (Change in Estimate)Not handled retrospectivelyNot considered errors or extraordinary items
26Sale of Plant AssetsSim City Corporation owns machinery that cost $20,000 when purchased on January 1, Depreciation has been recorded at a rate of $3,000 per year, resulting in a balance in accumulated depreciation of $9,000 at December 31, The machinery is sold on September 1, 2008, for $10,500. Prepare journal entries to (a) update depreciation for 2008 and (b) record the sale.(a) Depreciation Expense ($3,000 x 8/12) ,000Accumulated Depreciation ,000(b) Cash ,500Accumulated Depreciation ,000Machinery ,000Gain on Sale ,500
27Involuntary Conversion Sometimes an asset’s service is terminated through some type of involuntary conversion such as fire, flood, theft, or condemnation.Companies report the difference between the amount recovered (e.g., from a condemnation award or insurance recovery), if any, and the asset’s book value as a gain or loss.They treat these gains or losses like any other type of disposition.
28Exchanges Ordinarily accounted for on the basis of: the fair value of the asset given up orthe fair value of the asset received,whichever is clearly more evident.Companies should recognize immediately any gains or losses on the exchange when the transaction has commercial substance (future cash flows change as a result of the transaction).
29Accounting for Exchanges * If cash is 25% or more of the fair value of the exchange, recognize entire gain because earnings process is complete.
30Exchanges—Calculating Gain or Loss Companies recognize a loss immediately whether the exchange has commercial substance or not.Rationale: Companies should not value assets at more than their cash equivalent price; if the loss were deferred, assets would be overstated.
31Summary of Gain and Loss Recognition on Exchanges of Nonmonetary Assets Lacks Commercial Substance
32PP&E Disclosures Depreciating assets, use Accumulated Depreciation. Depleting assets may include use of Accumulated Depletion account, or the direct reduction of asset.Basis of valuation (cost)Pledges, liens, and other commitmentsDepreciation expense for the period.Balances of major classes of depreciable assets.Accumulated depreciation.A description of the depreciation methods used.
33Ratio AnalysisReturn on Sales: Net Income Sales Asset Turnover: Average Total Assets Return on Assets: Net income
34PP&E Disclosure Issues Magnitude depends on industry & business strategy.Age of fixed assets can be important; use average age & other ratiosVarious acquisition, disposal & write-off issuesOccasionally related to fraud, such as Waste Management
35Average Age Calculations Average age = (accumulated depreciation / depreciation expense)Average depreciable life = (ending gross investment / depreciation expense)Average age % = (accumulated depreciation / ending gross investment)Older plants are typically less efficient & subject to breakdowns