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4 OutlineDescribe the purpose of adjusting accounts at the end of the period.Prepare and explain adjusting entries for prepaid expenses, amortization, unearned revenues, accrued expenses, and accrued revenues.Explain how accounting adjustments link to financial statements.Explain and prepare an adjusted trial balance.
5 Review: Time period concept Definition: the continued life of a business is divided into time periods of equal length.This year incomestatementNext year incomeLast year income statementPast periodCurrent periodFuture periodDec. 31, B/S dategoing concern(business will not stop)
6 Review: Revenue Recognition Principle Revenue is recorded at the time it is earned regardless of whether cash or another asset has been exchanged.
7 Review: Matching Principle Expenses are to be matched in the same accounting period as the revenues they helped to earn.
8 Accrual and cash basisThe accrual basis of accounting matches revenues earned with expenses incurred.The cash basis matches revenues received with expenses paid. It is not satisfactory for most businesses because it results in financial statements that are not comparable from period to period, except when the amounts of prepaid, unearned, and accrued items are not material.
9 Adjust: A Step in Accounting cycle 1. Analyze Transactions2. Journalize3. Post4. Unadjusted trial balance5. Adjust6. Adjusted trial balance7. Prepare finance statements8.CloseNow that we havecovered the trialbalance, let’sdiscuss adjustingentries.
10 Why Need to AdjustSome events are not evidenced by the obvious documents. the effects of these events are recorded at the end of the accounting period by means of adjusting entries.The purpose of adjusting the accounts at the end of period is to make the accounting information comparable from period to period.
11 Why Need to AdjustAdjustments are based on three generally accepted accounting principles:Time period principle.Revenue recognition principle.Matching principle.
12 Type of Adjusting Entries Accruing unrecordedrevenuesConverting liabilities toexpensesConverting assets to
13 Adjusting Entries – Accruals Accruals occur when revenues have been earned or expenses incurred but no cash has been exchanged.Example: interest revenue earned during the period but not received until the next period.End ofaccounting period.Cash receivedRevenues earned
14 Adjusting Entries – Accruals Example: On Jun 1, 2004, Smith Inc. invests $100,000 for a bonds which pays 5% interest per year. Smith Inc. will not receive the interest until March 31, On December 31, 2004, Smith, Inc. need to make the following entry for the interest earned so far.
15 Adjusting Entries – Accrued Unrecorded expenses incurredEnd ofaccounting period.Cash paidExpense incurredExample: wages should be paid to employees during this period but not paid until the next period.
16 Adjusting Entries – Accrued Example: On the year-end, Dec. 31, 2004, Smith Inc.’s employees have earned total wages of $35,000 for the Monday, but Smith Inc. will not pay the wages until 5th of next month. So at the end of the accounting period, Smith need to make the following entries to accrued the wage expenses.
17 Adjusting Entries – Deferrals Prepaid expense is used upPaid cash for12 month’s rent< from July 2004 to June 2005 >7/1/0412/31/04Year end6/30/05
18 Adjusting Entries – Deferrals Example: On July 1, 2004, Smith Inc. paid $20000 for whole year’s rent covered from 1stof July to 30th of June. At the end of 2004, $10000 of rent expenses have occurred so Smith Inc. need to make the following entries to transfer the deferrals to expenses.
19 Adjusting Entries – Deferrals Converting liabilities to revenues:End ofaccounting period.Cash receivedRevenues earnedExample: service revenue received in advance.
20 Adjusting Entries – Deferrals Example: On Oct. 1, 2004, Smith Inc. signed a contract for providing a special service to Cone. Smith received $50000 for the service to be provided. At the end of 2004 half of the services have been proved to Cone. Smith should make the following entries to record earned revenue.
21 Adjust: Allocating the Costs of long-term assets Certain circumstances require adjusting entries to record accounting estimates. Amortization is an example.Amortization is the process of allocating the costs of assets over their useful lives.
22 AmortizationCompanies acquire capital assets such as equipment, buildings, vehicles, and patents to generate revenues.These assets are expected to provide benefits for more than one period.The accounting concept of amortization involves the systematic and rational allocation of cost of a long-lived asset to the periods during which it is used to generate revenue.
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24 Asset Cost - Salvage Value AmortizationOn January 1,2004, a company purchased a piece of equipment for $100,000. The equipment is expected to have a useful life of five years and have a salvage value of $5000.Asume the company use the straight-line method.Asset Cost - Salvage ValueUseful LifeStraight-LineAmortizationExpense=$ $5,0005 years= $19000/year
25 AmortizationThe required journal entry includes a debit to Amortization expense and a credit to an account called accumulated amortization.
26 Adjusted Trial Balance The adjusted trial balance is used to check if there are any mistakes in the adjusted accounts and it is used for the financial statement.Assume that Smith Inc. has the following unadjusted trial balance:
29 Adjustments & Financial Statements Adjusting entries bring the accounts up-to-date.Adjustments are only made when financial statements are prepared.Adjust entries will affect both the income statement and the balance sheet.Will not affect the cash flow of the company.
30 JOIN KHALID AZIZ ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA.COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA.CONTACT:R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN.