2DEFINITION : "Interventions" are principal learning processes in the "action"stage of organization development.Interventions are structured activities used individually or incombination by the members of a client system to improvetheir social or task performance. They may be introduced bya change agent as part of an improvement program, or theymay be used by the client following a program to check onthe state of the organization's health, or to effect necessarychanges in its own behavior. "Structured activities" mean suchdiverse procedures as experiential exercises, questionnaires,attitude surveys, interviews, relevant group discussions, and evenlunchtime meetings between the change agent and a member ofthe client organization. Every action that influences anorganization's improvement program in a change agent-clientsystem relationship can be said to be an intervention.
3There are many possible intervention strategies from which to choose There are many possible intervention strategies from which to choose. Several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations are made in the choice of a particular strategy. Beckhard lists six such assumptions:The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). Therefore, the basic units of change are groups, not individuals.An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition.Decision making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are, rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy.Organizations, subunits of organizations, and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. Controls are interim measurements, not the basis of managerial strategy.One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication, mutual trust, and confidence between and across levels.People support what they help create. People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change.
4Types of OD Interventions : Sensitivity :It is a method of changing behaviour through unstructured group interaction.The primary focus is on reducing inter-personal friction.Thus,it helps individuals toward better relations with others.The actual technique employed is T – GROUP(T stands for training),there is no specified agenda,they merely creates the opportunity for group members to express their ideas& feelings freely.
5Team Building:A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are commited to a common purpose,set of performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.Team & Work – groups are considered to be the fundamental units of organizations & also important for improving the functioning of the organization.Some of the team – building interventions focus on the intact work team composed of a boss and subordinates,which are known as “formal groups”.
6Inter – Group interventions : Its focus is on improving intergroup relations.The goals of these activities are to increase communictions and interactions between work – related groups,to reduce the amount of dysfunctional competition & to create awareness of the necessity for interdependence of action calling on the best efforts of both groups.
7Structural Intervention : It aims at improving organizational effectiveness through changes in the task,structures technological and goal processes in the organisation.They include the following :1. Sociological systems(STS)theory :It says that it is important to jointly optimize the social and technological systems of organiztions.
82. Self – Managed Teams :It involves :-Providing teams with a grouping of tasks that comprises a major unit of the total work to be performed.Training group members in multiple skills,including team effectiveness skills.Re – conceptualizing the role of managers with emphasis on coaching,expediting and coordinating.
93. Traditional MBO theory : It assumes that,there is a need for systematic goals setting,linking the goals of superirs to subordinates and that objectives & targets should be quantitative terms when ever possible.MBO can vary on an autocratic – participative continum & that MBO can feature a participative team approach.
10There are following most common OD Interventions, that most of the companies practice: 1. Applying criteria to goals : Here the leadership establishes objective criteria for the outputs of the organization's goal-setting processes. Then they hold people accountable not only for stating goals against those criteria but also for producing the desired
11Example:Organizations are implementing the concept of Balanced Scorecard, X-Matrix etc., to capture the goals of the employees, which in turn is helpful in their assessment and mid-term correction of their performance.
122. Establishing inter-unit task forces These groups can cross both functional parts of the organization (the "silos") as well as employee levels. They are ideally accountable to one person and are appropriately rewarded for completing their assigned task effectively. Then they disband. Example: Organizations have introduced various schemes for rewarding their employees for their performance, like: - Introducing the concept of Variable pay in as a part of CTC - Spot Recognition Award - Project bonus, performance bonus etc.,
133. Experimentation with alternative arrangements Today organizations are subject to "management by best-seller." The goal in these interventions is to create what is being called a "learning organization," one that performs experiments on organizational structure and processes, analyzes the results, and builds on them. Example: Organizations today are targeting at streamlining the process of Learning and Development and encouraging the culture of Learning in the organizations. - Targeting achieving mandatory man-days of training for their employees - Introducing the Competency based practices
144. Identifying "key communicators" This is to carefully determine who seems to be "in the know" within the organization. These people often do not know that they are, in fact, key communicators. This collection of individuals is then fed honest information during critical times, one-on-one and confidentially. Example: Defining the process of Organizational Communication policy - Introducing Top – down and Bottom – up Communication approach - Introducing Employee Forums and Suggestion Box options for employee interaction - Identifying Critical employees in the organization and making them the Brand Ambassadors of their company
155. Team Building This intervention can take many forms 5. Team Building This intervention can take many forms. Example: The most common is interviews and other pre-work, followed by a one- to three-day offsite session. During the meeting the group diagnoses its function as a unit and plans improvements in its operating procedures.
166. Inter-group Problem Solving This intervention usually involves working with the two groups separately before bringing them together. They establish common goals and negotiate changes in how the groups interface. Example: This is practiced in Product Development Companies and most of the IT and ITES Companies. - Focused group discussion are encouraged by the management, for generating better ideas and concepts