9 EUTROPHICATIONEutrophication is an increase in the concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases the primary productivity of the ecosystem.In aquatic ecosystems, eutrophication is caused by excessive inputs of nutrients, both N & P. Generally, freshwaters are P-limited and coastal estuarine waters are N-limited. The nutrients enhance algal growth, and this, in turn, may have a cascade of effects on the ecosystem.
13 Majority of the urban lakes have already reached a critical stage with their changed hydrological, biological & ecological setting. Therefore, this calls for an urgent stock taking & even reversal of eutrophication process if we have to attempt conservation of lakes.Many ecological effects can arise from stimulating primary production but there are three particularly troubling ecological impacts: decreased biodiversity, changes in species composition and dominance, and toxicity effects.These effects may include: algal blooms, growth of undesirable algal species, oxygen depletion or anoxia in bottom waters, loss of cold-water fish species, abundance of “rough fish”, fish kills, unpleasant tastes and odors.
14 Encroachment of lakesMost lakes in Bangalore have disappeared due to encroachment& construction activity both by authorizied/unauthorizedagencies.• The city once had 141 lakes of which 7 cannot be traced, 7 arereduced to small pools of water, 18 have been unauthorisedlyencroached by slums and private parties, 14 have dried up andare leased out by the Government. 28 lakes have been used bythe Bangalore Development Authority to distribute sites andbuild extensions for residential areas. The remaining 67 lakesare in fairly advanced state of deterioration. Valley zones ofmost of these lakes are degenerated resulting in floods duringheavy rains
15 Algal bloomsAn algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in an aquatic system.Typically, only one or a small number of phytoplankton species are involved, and some blooms may be recognized by discoloration of the water resulting from the high density of pigmented cells.
16 Harmful Algal BloomsA harmful algal bloom (HAB) is an algal bloom that causes negative impacts to other organisms via production of natural toxins, mechanical damage to other organisms, or by other means.HABs are often associated with large-scale marine mortality events and have been associated with various types of shellfish poisonings.Red Tides:- "Red tide" is a term often used to describe HABs in marine coastal areas , as the dinoflagellate species involved in HABs are often red or brown, and tint the sea water to a reddish colour.
17 Effects of HABsthe production of neurotoxins which cause mass mortalities in fish, seabirds and marine mammalshuman illness or death via consumption of seafood contaminated by toxic algaemechanical damage to other organisms, such as disruption of epithelial gill tissues in fish, resulting in asphyxiationoxygen depletion of the water column (hypoxia or anoxia) from cellular respiration and bacterial degradation
18 Water HyacinthWater hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) is an aquatic plant which can live and reproduce floating freely on the surface of fresh waters or can be anchored in mud.It grows in mats up to 2 metres thick which can reduce light and oxygen, change water chemistry, affect flora and fauna and cause significant increase in water loss.It also causes practical problems for marine transportation, fishing and at intakes for hydro power and irrigation schemes. It is now considered a serious threat to biodiversity.
19 Possible practical applications of water hyacinth The Mennonite Central Committee of Bangladesh has been experimenting with paper production from water hyacinth for some years. They have established two projects that make paper from water hyacinth stems.Another application of water hyacinth is the production of fibreboards for a variety of end uses. The House and Building Research Institute in Dhaka has carried out experimental work on the production of fibre boards from water hyacinth fibre and other indigenous materials.
20 The fibre from the stems of the water hyacinth plant can be used to make rope. The stalk from the plant is shredded lengthways to expose the fibres and then left to dry for several days.In the Philippines water hyacinth is dried and used to make baskets and matting for domestic use.Biogas production, water purification, animal fodder, fertilisers, fish feed......
22 Waterborne Infectious Diseases Typhoid and Intestinal ailments caused by bacteria, parasites, and viruses.Among the most serious parasitic diseases are amoebiasis, giardiasis, ascariasis, and hookworm.In 1993, high cryptosporidium levels in Milwaukee's drinking water supply sickened more than 400,000 residents. Waterborne diseases occur when parasites or other disease-causing microorganisms are transmitted via contaminated water, particularly water contaminated by pathogens originating from excreta.typhoid, intestinal parasites, and most of the enteric and diarrheal diseases caused by bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Among the most serious parasitic diseases are amoebiasis, giardiasis, ascariasis, and hookworm.Developed countries are not immune to the problem of infectious waterborne diseases. In 1993, high cryptosporidium levels in Milwaukee's drinking water supply sickened more than 400,000 residents. Every year there are thousands of beach closings in the US, and outdated monitoring methods may in some cases leave beachgoers vulnerable to a range of illnesses. Polluted beach water can cause rashes, ear aches, pink eye, respiratory infections, hepatitis, encephalitis, gastroenteritis, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach aches. Hey, that's no day at the beach!
23 Nutrient PollutionNutrients: The discharges of nitrogen, phosphorus, and other nutrients coming from agriculture, waste disposal, coastal development, and fossil fuel use.Harmful overgrowths of algae- direct toxic effects –’low-oxygen conditions’Toxic Algae- "harmful algal blooms," – also referred to as "red tides" or "brown tides.“Zooplankton eat the toxic algae and begin passing the toxins up the food chain.Nutrient-pollution-driven blooms of non-toxic algae and seaweed –reduction of water clarityThe discharges of nitrogen, phosphorus, and other nutrients come from agriculture, waste disposal, coastal development, and fossil fuel use. Once nutrient pollution reaches the coastal zone, it stimulates harmful overgrowths of algae, which can have direct toxic effects and ultimately result in low-oxygen conditions. Certain types of algae are toxic. Overgrowths of these algae result in "harmful algal blooms," which are more colloquially referred to as "red tides" or "brown tides." Zooplankton eat the toxic algae and begin passing the toxins up the food chain, affecting edibles like clams, and ultimately working their way up to seabirds, marine mammals, and humans. The result can be illness and sometimes death.
25 When the algal overgrowths finally die, they sink to the bottom and begin decomposing. This process uses oxygen from the surrounding water. In some cases, the decomposition process takes enough oxygen out of the water that the level falls too low to support normal aquatic life and the region becomes a coastal dead zone.Nutrient pollution can trigger unusual outbreaks of fish diseases. For instance, scientists have found that Pfiesteria, a tiny marine pathogen, can thrive in nutrient-polluted waters. In 1991, one million menhaden fish in North Carolina's Neuse River were killed in a Pfiesteria outbreak.In 1997, several tidal creeks in the Chesapeake Bay watershed experienced Pfiesteria outbreaks, and serious fish kills occurred. Nutrient pollution played a role in both cases.
26 Chemical Contamination PESTICIDES:In terms of general human health effects, pesticides can :affect and damage the nervous systemcause liver damagedamage DNA and cause a variety of cancerscause reproductive and endocrine damagecause other acutely toxic or chronic effectsThe US EPA has found widespread contamination of waterways by Atrazine, the second most commonly used herbicide in the US.Chemical water pollution typically occurs because ...the chemicals were dumped into the water intentionally;the chemicals seeped into groundwater, streams, or rivers because of failing pipes or storage tanks;the chemicals catastrophically contaminated waterways because of industrial accidents;the pollution settled out of polluted air (or was precipitated out of polluted air); orchemicals were leached out of contaminated soil.1. PesticidesPesticides are carried in rainwater runoff from farm fields, suburban lawns, or roadside embankments into the nearest creeks and streams. Occasionally they are even intentionally sprayed into waterways as part of a pest-control effortA) The US EPA has found widespread contamination of waterways by Atrazine, the second most commonly used herbicide in the US. Atrazine causes feminization of male frogs even at concentrations in water as low as 0.1 part per billion. Atrazine water pollution has been noted in many countries, including South Africa, Germany, and Denmark. The Natural Resources Defense Council notes that studies indicate the chemical may be linked to a number of human cancers, including prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A University of California San Francisco study found that Atrazine can affect human reproductive and developmental processes by disrupting human hormone activity. The effect occurs at concentrations as low as 2 ppb.
27 2. MERCURY:Mercury finds its way into water primarily through air pollution from coal-fired power plants and some other industrial processes.In the water, the elemental mercury is converted to methylmercury by certain bacteria, after which it moves up the food chain of fish gobbling each other up. In then end, the larger fish may end up on your dinner plate—swordfish, sea bass, marlin, halibut, or tunaYoung children and fetuses are most at risk because their systems are still developing.Exposure to mercury in the womb can cause neurological problems, including slower reflexes, learning deficits, delayed or incomplete mental development, autism, and brain damage.Central nervous system effects like Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's diseaseBioaccumulation of mercury effects animals in any art of the food chain
30 Mining Acid mine drainage Spills and leaks Mountaintop Removal MiningWATER POLLUTION EFFECTS OF MINING DISASTERSIn 2000, a tailings dam split open at the Baia Mare mine in Romania. This accident sent some 100,000 tons of wastewater and 20,000 tons of sludge contaminated with cyanide, copper, and heavy metals into the Tisza River, and eventually into the Danube—destroying 1,240 tons of fish and polluting the drinking water supplies of 2.5 million people.In 2008 in the US state of Tennessee, an impoundment dam failed and 5.4 million cubic yards of coal ash spilled into adjacent waterways, killing fish, damaging property, and threatening drinking-water supplies. Residents now face concerns about the long-term health effects from the ash, which contains numerous harmful contaminants such as arsenic. It should be noted that in this case the spill was not related to coal mining; it was stored coal ash, the waste that results from burning coal in a power plant.
31 THERMAL POLLUTIONIndustrial thermal pollution is a problem for our waterways—fish and other organisms adapted to a particular temperature range can be killed from thermal shock, and the extra heat may disrupt spawning or kill young fish.Warmer water temperatures lower the dissolved oxygen content of the water. That's a double-whammy to aquatic organisms, since the warmer water also causes them to increase their respiration rates and consume oxygen fasterGlobal warming is imparting extra heat to our oceans, which have absorbed about 20 times as much heat as the atmosphere over the past half-century
36 Dolphins die as the Ganga chokes Over a 100 factories in this UP belt empty toxic effluents into the GangaEffluents once released into the Ganga choke all life forms gradually.Reports available show high levels of the pesticide DDT found in the carcasses of dead dolphins.Over 50 dams and barrages have been built all along the Ganga and water has been diverted for agriculture. Dams create physical barriers that prevent migration of the dolphins leading to inbreeding.The river is only three feet deep in this region and so the water level is too little making the dolphins isolated in shallow pools.
40 Case Study I- Different approaches to solve Fresh water pollution problem in India and China
41 Tripur A drought prone area (designated by the Government of India) Clean water is crucial for the dyeing and bleaching units.Textile dyeing industries discharge effluents ranging between 80 and 200m3/t of production.Severe water crisis due to over extraction of groundwater and contamination of groundwater and other surface water bodies.The effluents have a high Biological Oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), color and salt content.The Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) and Individual Effluent Treatment Plants (IETPs) set up by the industry do not reduce the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in the effluents.Effluent with high salt content is discharged into the River Noyyal which then flows downstream to be stored at the Orathupalayam reservoir, which in turn impacts the agricultural lands irrigated by these waters.
42 Tianjin An extremely water-scarce area. The quantity of surface water per capita is only 322m3, less than one fifteenth that of China.High economic growth has put an additional stress on the water resources.Due to the lack of water, paddy fields are converted into glebes, wetlands are transformed into saline lands, and subsidence is significant due to the over-extraction of underground water.
43 Options available Transfer water from other areas Reuse the treated wastewater for industrial, municipal, agricultural or residential purposes.Desalinate seawater (Tianjin)The optimum level of pollution causing activity is the point where the social benefits are slightly more than the social costs.
44 Tripur Approach New Tirupur Area Development Corporation Limited PPP based on BOT modelProject-specific public limited company for water and sewerage with equity participation of major beneficiariesFirst concession by a state government to a public limited company to draw raw water for domestic and industrial uses and to collect revenuesFirst index-based user charges and direct cost recovery for urban environmental servicesFirst investment of IFC in the water sector in the country.Pipeline from the Cauvery river, a water distribution network of about 350 km.
45 Tripur ApproachRaw water and sewerage treatment plants, pumping stations, and conveyance facilities. A water treatment plant is located at the water source.The project cost is to be financed through a debt: equity ratio of 1.5:1 viz Equity Crores, Subordinate Debt Crores, Debt Crores.NTADCL charges differing prices for water used for domestic purpose and water used for industrial use. The charges are Rs. 3 per kilolitre (KL) for villages, Rs. 5 per KL for domestic use in the Tirupur Municipality and Rs. 45 per KL for industrial and commercial consumers.
46 Environmental CostThe O & M cost of sewage reclamation plant may be about Rs. 8/KL and hence the total water pricing of domestic water ought to be about Rs. 11 to 13/KL (water supply cost of Rs. 3/KL or Rs. 5/KL, reclamation cost of Rs. 8/KL) and Rs. 80/KL (i.e.water supply cost of Rs. 45/KL as per NTADCL estimation and Rs. 35 /KL for RO +Evaporator +Crystaliser O & M costs).
47 Environmental Cost“zero discharge” levels specified by Tamil Nadu High Court.If, nearly 95% of the water taken is effectively recycled and reused, it would strike a huge blow to the effective functioning of NTADCL, which can only survive and make profits, if there is a consistent and upward demand for the water supplied.
48 Tianjin ApproachResearch showed that if urban wastewater is treated to act as living water, the basic construction cost of the treatment facility will equal that of diverting water from 30 km away; if it is to act as treating technical water, the cost will equal that of diverting water from a 40–60 km distance (Hu, 1999).The content of impurities in urban wastewater is usually less than 0.1%, and they can be eliminated through a treatment process. However, seawater contains dissolved salts and organic substances, which take up 3.5% of volume and impurities are over 35 times that of urban wastewater.
49 Tianjin ApproachCentralised treatment and reuse of urban wastewater is a systematic project that regroups various agencies in urban planning, industry, agriculture, irrigation works, environmental protection, municipal engineering, hygiene, etc.A supervisory agency should include professional expertise in hygiene, environmental protection, agriculture, supervision, etc. It will supervise and manage pollution sources, irrigation water quality, agricultural products according to national standards, prohibits the irrigation by untreated wastewater and the use of sludge.Helping the water-supplying agency to manage water resource uses and set corresponding monitoring procedures.
50 Case Study II- Loopholes exploited by some distilleries in India and need for load based Cess
51 Legal provisions available Water (Prevention and control of pollution) Act-1974Water Cess Act-1077Environmental Pollution Act-1986Discharge of wastewater carrying pollutants above specifies concentrations is prohibited. However no penalty on the volume of water discharged
52 Water Cess ActGroundwater consumption is metered and cess is charged, serves as a free source of income for the municipalities.Differential charges-The price of water does not cover its opportunity cost or scarcity value
53 Unethical practicesThe Effluent profile for Distillery industries is characterized by high BOD levels.The cost function follows a negative exponential curve.It is cheaper to dilute effluent with freshwater and discharge rather than do the primary, secondary and tertiary treatment.
54 Load based CessQuality and volume of effluent varies from Industry to industryLoad based industry standards obtained by researchA distillery producing 10,000 Kl of alcohol annually requires 250,000 Kl of fresh water.Extra water used indicated inefficiency or malpractice.
55 Case Study III- Treatment options available for municipal sewage
57 Anaerobic DigestersAnaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen and is widely used to treat wastewaterThe two main byproducts are CH4 and methanogenic digestate
58 Financial and Economic benefits The byproducts can act as a source or revenue.The additional revenue due to sale of methanogenic digestate and biogas reduces the break-even time and increases the Net Present Value.
59 Once upon a time in Japan From 1932 to 1968, Chisso Corporation, a company located in Kumamoto Japan, dumped an estimated 27 tons of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay. Kumamoto is a small town about 570 miles southwest of Tokyo. The town consisted of mostly farmers and fisherman.When Chisso Corporation dumped this massive amount of mercury into the bay, thousands of people whose normal diet included fish from the bay, unexpectedly developed symptoms of methyl mercury poisoning.
60 The first environmental pollution photojournalist W.Eugene SmithThe first environmental pollution photojournalist
61 Chiso factory minamota Having a monopoly on the chemical enabled Chisso to expand rapidly. Since Chisso Corporation was the main industry in the small Minamata town, the town's growth period from 1952 to 1960 paralleled Chisso's progress.
64 The fishermen began protesting in 1959 The fishermen began protesting in They demanded compensation, but soon became intimidated by the threats of Chisso management. The victims feared that if they did not settle, they would never receive any kind of compensation. Chisso paid off some of the people while continuing to profit from increased sales. Chisso installed a "Cyclator" which was designed to treat waste water. The management however, often ignored this crucial step in their production process.
65 Plaintiffs demonstrate with photos of their dead on the last day of the trial in October of Over 3,000 victims have been recognized as having "Minamata Disease" as it came to be known. It has taken some of these people over thirty years to receive compensation for this inconceivable event. In 1993, nearly forty years later, the Japanese courts were still resolving suitable compensation for the victims. Many people have lost their lives, suffered from physical deformities, or have had to live with the physical and emotional pain of "Minamata Disease". This suffering is all a result of the very wrongful and negligent acts of the Chisso Corporation who dumped mercury into the sea and poisoned the people of the Minamata Bay area.
66 Shimada, after he performed the Japanese ritual of shame and apology: touching his forehead to the ground, at the close of a grueling day in cour
67 Here we see an image of an outwardly healthy mother bathing her fetal-poisoned 16 year old daughter, Tomoko Uemura, physically crippled since birth due to environmental industrial mercury poisoning in the local Minamata, Japan, water supply