2Water PollutionWater Pollution is the addition of any substance that has a negative effect on water or the living things that depend on water.The substances that cause water pollution are called pollutants.
3Point source pollution Sources of pollution are classified, in part, by how they enter a body of water.Point source pollution is a specific source of pollution that can be identified.Example: A pipe gushing colored water into a river
4Nonpoint source pollution A widely spread source of pollution that can’t be tied to a specific point of origin is called nonpoint source pollution.Example: Runoff from a farm field, a street, or a construction site
5Effects of PollutantsSome pollutants can build up in the bodies of living things.Pesticides are chemicals intended to kill insects and other organisms that damage crops.An example of a pesticide is DDT.
6A very small amount of DDT in water can build up to harmful levels in living things
7Major Sources of Water Pollution The three major sources of water pollution are human wastes, industrial wastes, and chemical runoff.
8Human Waste Sewage in cities During heavy rains or floods, sanitary sewers sometimes overflow and can pollute the surface water.If this happens, people are often told to boil water for drinking and cooking after a flood.The boiling kills many disease-causing organisms.
9Sewage in Rural AreasIn rural areas, people must be careful where they locate septic tanks.If a tank is too near a stream or on a hill, wastewater can leak into the stream or flow downhill to the area of a well.
11Sewage in Rural AreasWastes from cattle, pigs, and chickens can also be a problem in rural areas.Animal wastes can run off from pastures and barnyards and pass disease-causing bacteria and other kinds of pollution into bodies of water.
12Industrial WastesChemicals, smoke , and heated water are three types of pollutants produced by factories, mines, and other industries.
13ChemicalsMany factory processes involve toxic chemicals and strong acids.Other toxic wastes are produced as a result of manufacturing and mining processes.Although laws control many point sources of chemical pollution, some factories still release toxic chemicals directly into nearby rivers and lakes.
14Chemicals Another problem is pollution caused by nonpoint sources. In the past, many industries stored toxic wastes in barrels or other containers buried underground.Over the years, however, many of these containers rusted or broke.The chemicals leaked out, polluting both the soil and the groundwater.
15Barrels of nuclear waste found in an abandoned German salt mine
16Smoke and ExhaustMany power plants and factories burn coal or oil to fuel their processes.The engines of millions of cars, trucks, and buses burn gasoline.Smoke and exhaust from these sources pour into the air, especially around large cities.
17Smoke and ExhaustWhen coal, oil, and gasoline are burned, the gases sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are released into the atmosphere.The sulfur and nitrogen react with water, forming sulfuric and nitric acids.The result is acid rain.
18Acid RainAcid rain is rain or another form of precipitation that is more acidic than normal.Acid rain can affect fish, harm trees, and eat away the stone of buildings and statues.
19Heat PollutionMuch of the water in factories is used to cool machinery or metal objects.The warm water alone can act as a pollutant.Many water organisms can live in only a narrow range of temperatures.Warm water released by factory into a nearby river or pond raises the temperature of the water, sometimes enough to harm the living things there.
20Chemical RunoffFarmers spread or spray fertilizing chemicals on their fields to produce better crops.When rain falls on the fields, it washes some of the chemicals away as runoff.Water used for irrigation also creates runoff.The fertilizers in the runoff are a nonpoint source of pollution.
22Runoff from farmsWith the addition of fertilizers running off into ponds and lakes, the process of eutrophication speeds up.Runoff and irrigation water carry away pollutants from farm fields such as pesticides and fertilizers.
24Runoff from roadsWhen it rains, runoff carries oil into rivers and lakes, or underground and into the groundwater.During winter, runoff also picks up salt that is spread on roads and sidewalks to melt ice.Gasoline, oil, and salt are nonpoint sources that pollute rivers and lakes.They can also seep underground and pollute wells and aquifers.
26Water Pollution Solutions Solving pollution problems involves cleaning up existing problems as well as preventing new ones.CleanupMany pollutants are removed from fresh water through natural cleanup processes.Living things in lakes, streams, and wetlands help reduce pollution by filtering out and breaking down waste materials.
27Living things helping cleanup pollution ExamplesPlant roots filter larger particles from the water.Certain bacteria consume oil and have been used to cleanup oil spills.Natural and artificial wetlands can be used to clean up water pollution.Wetlands have been built near coal mines to treat acidic mining runoff before it returns to the environment.
29PreventionMany industries have found that recycling techniques that conserve water also reduce pollution.For example, factories cool the water used to cool machinery and reuse it instead of releasing it into a river.Another example is when farmers collect and reuse the runoff water from their pasture as water for irrigation.Farmers can also plant fields of grasses that filter out pollutants before the water reaches a river or pond.