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Kingdom PROTISTA: What are protists?

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom PROTISTA: What are protists?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom PROTISTA: What are protists?
Domain Eukarya Eukaryotes have a Nucleus and many organelles! Defined by exclusion – Cannot be classified as plants, animals or fungi Diverse in body, obtaining food, and movement

2 How did eukaryotes evolve?
Probably evolved 2 billion years ago Arose through endosymbiosis One organism lives inside another organism Photosynthetic prokaryote lived inside another prokaryote chloroplast Aerobic prokaryote lived inside another prokaryote mitochondrion cDNA and mDNA is similar to Bacteria DNA

3 How did eukaryotes evolve?

4 PROTISTA characteristics: body plans
Most are unicellular (example, Paramecium) Some small multicellular colonies (example, Volvox) Some large multicellular colonies (example, kelp) paramecium volvox kelp

5 PROTISTA characteristics: obtaining food
Some protists are autotrophs Absorb energy of sun through pigments Make their own food through photosynthesis light energy + 6H20 + 6CO2 C6 H O2

6 PROTISTA characteristics: obtaining food
Other protists are heterotrophs Get their food by eating other organisms Release energy by cellular respiration C6 H O2 6H20 + 6CO2 + energy(ATP)

7 PROTISTA characteristics: motility
Some move with long, whip-like flagella Others move with shorter cilia Others move by extended pseudopodia pseudopodia flagella cilia

8 PROTISTA asexual reproduction
Most protists reproduce asexually Binary fission  1 cell divides into 2 equal size cells Multiple fission  1 cell divides into more than 2 How do the offspring compare? Offspring are genetically identical to parent Similarity is created by the process of mitosis

9 PROTISTA sexual reproduction
Some protists can reproduce sexually Protist conjugation  2 cells join, exchange DNA How do the offspring compare? Resulting offspring are genetically unique Uniqueness is created by the process of meiosis

10 Animal-like PROTISTA Move like animals
Heterotrophic: obtain food like animals NOT closely evolutionarily linked to animals

11 Animal-like PROTISTA Phylum Protozoa
Body plan: unicellular Motility: form pseudopodia Heterotrophic: absorb food by endocytosis pseudopod

12 Animal-like PROTISTA Phylum Protozoa

13 Animal-like PROTISTA Phylum Ciliophora
cilia Body plan: unicellular Motility: cilia beat in waves Heterotrophic: cilia sweep food into mouth

14 Animal-like PROTISTA Phylum Sarcomastigophora
Body plan: unicellular Motility: one or more flagella Heterotrophic or parasitic Some cause disease Trypanosoma causes sleeping sickness Giardia contaminates water

15 Fly takes up blood and injects trypanosomes
Epimastigotes reproduce by mitosis in the salivary gland and transform → trypanosomes Trypanosomes enter bloodstream Trypanosomes reproduce by mitosis in blood and spinal fluid Promastigotes leave the fly gut and transform → epimastigotes Fly takes up blood and trypanosomes In fly gut, trypanosomes transform → promastigotes and reproduce by mitosis Trypanosomes spread in circulatory and nervous systems

16 Animal-like PROTISTA Phylum Apicomplexa
Body plan: unicellular Motility: no means of locomotion All are parasitic Some cause disease Plasmodium causes malaria Cryptosporidium contaminates water

17 Oocysts grow, rupture, release sporozoites
Mosquito takes up blood and injects sporozoites Schizonts transform → merozoites.Liver cells rupture Sporozoites invade liver cells Sporozoites transform → schizonts Ookinete invades mosquito gut, transforms → oocyst Mosquito takes in ♂ and ♀ gametocytes Asexual route: merozoites → schizonts → merozoites → blood cells rupture Merozoites invade blood cells Zygote transforms → ookinete Sexual route: some merozoites transform → gametocytes In mosquito stomach, ♂ gamete penetrates ♀ gamete → zygote

18 Fungus-like PROTISTA Often called molds but NOT in Kingdom Fungi
Protist cell walls are composed of cellulose Fungi cell walls are composed of chitin

19 Fungus-like PROTISTA Phylum Myxomycota (plasmodial slime molds)
Body plan: unicellular or multicellular Mobile and stationary life stages

20 Fungus-like PROTISTA Phylum Myxomycota (plasmodial slime molds)
Mobile stage of life cycle Forms plasmodium: mass of cytoplasm Creeps by amoeboid-like streaming Consumes decaying plants by endocytosis

21 Fungus-like PROTISTA Phylum Myxomycota (plasmodial slime molds)
Stationary stage of life cycle Reproduces when food is scarce Forms sporophores: spore-bearing structures

22 Fungus-like PROTISTA Phylum Oomycota (water molds)
Body plan: unicellular and multicellular Motility: flagella Parasitize fish and many crop plants

23 Plant-like PROTISTA Autotrophic: obtain food like plants
Lack true roots, stems, and leaves

24 Plant-like PROTISTA Four basic body plans
1 unicellular known as phytoplankton 2 colonial coordinated group of cells 3 filamentous slender, stringy 4 multicellular often large and complex

25 Plant-like PROTISTA Types of pigments
chlorophyll phycobilin fucoxanthin carotenoid Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light Other pigments absorb other wavelengths √ Efficient photosynthesis

26 Pigments Chlorophyll – green Phycobilin – blue-green, yellow, and red
Fucoxanthin – brown and olive-green Carotenoid – red, orange, and yellow

27 Plant-like PROTISTA Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae)
Diverse body forms: all four Diverse habitats: aquatic, moist terrestrial, symbiotic relationships Pigments: chlorophyll and carotenoids Share common ancestor with plants? (same pigments and cell wall composition)

28 Plant-like PROTISTA Phylum Phaeophyta (brown algae)
Body form: multicellular Pigments: chlorophyll and fucoxanthin Habitat: cold, nutrient-rich, rocky coasts Some of the largest algae known

29 Plant-like PROTISTA Phylum Rhodophyta (red algae)
Body form: multicellular Pigments: chlorophyll and phycobilin Phycobilin can absorb deep-penetrating light Rhodophyta can live at great depths

30 Plant-like PROTISTA Phylum Bacillariophyta (diatoms)
Body form: unicellular or colonial Pigments: chlorophyll, carotenoids, fucoxanthin 2-piece shells have radial or bilateral symmetry Important role as producers in food web

31 Plant-like PROTISTA Phylum Dinoflagelleta (dinoflagellates)
Body form: unicellular Pigments: chlorophyll and carotenoids Some species produce a red tide Turn water reddish during population explosion Red tide toxin can kill large numbers of fish

32 Plant-like PROTISTA Phylum Chrysophyta (golden algae)
Body form: unicellular and colonial Pigments: chlorophyll, carotenoids, fucoxanthin Resistant cysts allow survival beneath frozen lakes in winter and dry lakes in summer Store surplus energy as oil

33 Plant-like PROTISTA Phylum Euglenophyta (euglenoids)
Body form: unicellular Pigments: chlorophyll, carotenoids Autotrophic (photosynthetic) and heterotrophic (eyespot and flagellum)

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