Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Kingdom PROTISTA: What are protists?  Domain Eukarya  Eukaryotes have a Nucleus and many organelles!  Defined by exclusion – Cannot be classified as.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Kingdom PROTISTA: What are protists?  Domain Eukarya  Eukaryotes have a Nucleus and many organelles!  Defined by exclusion – Cannot be classified as."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom PROTISTA: What are protists?  Domain Eukarya  Eukaryotes have a Nucleus and many organelles!  Defined by exclusion – Cannot be classified as plants, animals or fungi  Diverse in body, obtaining food, and movement

2 How did eukaryotes evolve?  Probably evolved 2 billion years ago  Arose through endosymbiosis One organism lives inside another organism Photosynthetic prokaryote lived inside another prokaryotechloroplast Aerobic prokaryote lived inside another prokaryotemitochondrion cDNA and mDNA is similar to Bacteria DNA

3 How did eukaryotes evolve?

4 PROTISTA characteristics: body plans  Most are unicellular (example, Paramecium)  Some small multicellular colonies (example, Volvox)  Some large multicellular colonies (example, kelp) parameciumvolvoxkelp

5 PROTISTA characteristics: obtaining food Some protists are autotrophs Absorb energy of sun through pigments Make their own food through photosynthesis light energy + 6H CO 2 C 6 H O 2

6 PROTISTA characteristics: obtaining food Other protists are heterotrophs Get their food by eating other organisms Release energy by cellular respiration C 6 H O 2 6H CO 2 + energy(ATP)

7 PROTISTA characteristics: motility  Some move with long, whip-like flagella  Others move with shorter cilia  Others move by extended pseudopodia flagella cilia pseudopodia

8 PROTISTA asexual reproduction  Most protists reproduce asexually Binary fission  1 cell divides into 2 equal size cells Multiple fission  1 cell divides into more than 2  How do the offspring compare? Offspring are genetically identical to parent Similarity is created by the process of mitosis

9 PROTISTA sexual reproduction  Some protists can reproduce sexually Protist conjugation  2 cells join, exchange DNA  How do the offspring compare? Resulting offspring are genetically unique Uniqueness is created by the process of meiosis

10 Animal-like PROTISTA  Move like animals  Heterotrophic: obtain food like animals  NOT closely evolutionarily linked to animals

11 Animal-like PROTISTA Phylum Protozoa  Body plan: unicellular Motility: form pseudopodia  Heterotrophic: absorb food by endocytosis pseudopod

12 Animal-like PROTISTA Phylum Protozoa

13 Animal-like PROTISTA Phylum Ciliophora  Body plan: unicellular Motility: cilia beat in waves  Heterotrophic: cilia sweep food into mouth cilia

14 Animal-like PROTISTA Phylum Sarcomastigophora  Body plan: unicellular  Motility: one or more flagella Heterotrophic or parasitic  Some cause disease Trypanosoma causes sleeping sickness Giardia contaminates water

15 Fly takes up blood and injects trypanosomes Trypanosomes enter bloodstream Trypanosomes reproduce by mitosis in blood and spinal fluid Trypanosomes spread in circulatory and nervous systems Fly takes up blood and trypanosomes In fly gut, trypanosomes transform → promastigotes and reproduce by mitosis Promastigotes leave the fly gut and transform → epimastigotes Epimastigotes reproduce by mitosis in the salivary gland and transform → trypanosomes

16 Animal-like PROTISTA Phylum Apicomplexa  Body plan: unicellular  Motility: no means of locomotion All are parasitic  Some cause disease Plasmodium causes malaria Cryptosporidium contaminates water

17 Mosquito takes up blood and injects sporozoites Sporozoites invade liver cells Sporozoites transform → schizonts Schizonts transform → merozoites. Liver cells rupture Merozoites invade blood cells Asexual route: merozoites → schizonts → merozoites → blood cells rupture Sexual route: some merozoites transform → gametocytes Mosquito takes in ♂ and ♀ gametocytes In mosquito stomach, ♂ gamete penetrates ♀ gamete → zygote Zygote transforms → ookinete Ookinete invades mosquito gut, transforms → oocyst Oocysts grow, rupture, release sporozoites

18 Fungus-like PROTISTA Often called molds but NOT in Kingdom Fungi Protist cell walls are composed of cellulose Fungi cell walls are composed of chitin

19 Fungus-like PROTISTA Phylum Myxomycota (plasmodial slime molds)  Body plan: unicellular or multicellular  Mobile and stationary life stages

20 Fungus-like PROTISTA Phylum Myxomycota (plasmodial slime molds) Mobile stage of life cycle Forms plasmodium: mass of cytoplasm Creeps by amoeboid-like streaming Consumes decaying plants by endocytosis

21 Fungus-like PROTISTA Phylum Myxomycota (plasmodial slime molds) Stationary stage of life cycle Reproduces when food is scarce Forms sporophores: spore-bearing structures

22 Fungus-like PROTISTA Phylum Oomycota (water molds)  Body plan: unicellular and multicellular  Motility: flagella Parasitize fish and many crop plants

23 Plant-like PROTISTA  Autotrophic: obtain food like plants  Lack true roots, stems, and leaves

24 Plant-like PROTISTA Four basic body plans 1unicellularknown as phytoplankton 2colonialcoordinated group of cells 3filamentousslender, stringy 4multicellularoften large and complex

25 Plant-like PROTISTA Types of pigments chlorophyllphycobilin fucoxanthincarotenoid  Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light  Other pigments absorb other wavelengths √ Efficient photosynthesis

26 Pigments Chlorophyll – green Phycobilin – blue-green, yellow, and red Fucoxanthin – brown and olive-green Carotenoid – red, orange, and yellow

27 Plant-like PROTISTA Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae)  Diverse body forms: all four Diverse habitats: aquatic, moist terrestrial, symbiotic relationships  Pigments: chlorophyll and carotenoids  Share common ancestor with plants? (same pigments and cell wall composition)

28 Plant-like PROTISTA Phylum Phaeophyta (brown algae)  Body form: multicellular  Pigments: chlorophyll and fucoxanthin  Habitat: cold, nutrient-rich, rocky coasts Some of the largest algae known

29 Plant-like PROTISTA Phylum Rhodophyta (red algae)  Body form: multicellular  Pigments: chlorophyll and phycobilin  Phycobilin can absorb deep-penetrating light Rhodophyta can live at great depths

30 Plant-like PROTISTA Phylum Bacillariophyta (diatoms)  Body form: unicellular or colonial  Pigments: chlorophyll, carotenoids, fucoxanthin  2-piece shells have radial or bilateral symmetry Important role as producers in food web

31 Plant-like PROTISTA Phylum Dinoflagelleta (dinoflagellates)  Body form: unicellular  Pigments: chlorophyll and carotenoids Some species produce a red tide Turn water reddish during population explosion Red tide toxin can kill large numbers of fish

32 Plant-like PROTISTA Phylum Chrysophyta (golden algae)  Body form: unicellular and colonial  Pigments: chlorophyll, carotenoids, fucoxanthin  Resistant cysts allow survival beneath frozen lakes in winter and dry lakes in summer Store surplus energy as oil

33 Plant-like PROTISTA Phylum Euglenophyta (euglenoids)  Body form: unicellular  Pigments: chlorophyll, carotenoids Autotrophic (photosynthetic) and heterotrophic (eyespot and flagellum)


Download ppt "Kingdom PROTISTA: What are protists?  Domain Eukarya  Eukaryotes have a Nucleus and many organelles!  Defined by exclusion – Cannot be classified as."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google