5Composition of EggsChalaza (pl. chalazae): The ropy, twisted strands of albumen that anchor the yolk to the center of the thick egg white.Vitelline membrane: The membrane surrounding the egg yolk and attached to the chalazae.Cuticle (bloom): A waxy coating on an eggshell that seals the pores from bacterial contamination and moisture loss.
10Purchasing EggsCandling: A method of determining egg quality based on observing eggs against a light.
11Purchasing Eggs Haugh Units The freshness of an egg can be detected by cracking it open onto a flat surface and looking at the height of its thick albumen.Fresh egg whites sit up tall and firm, while older ones tend to spread out.
12Purchasing Eggs Sizing is not related to grading in any way. Eggs are sold in cartons by various sizes determined by a minimum weight for a dozen eggs in their shell.
17Functions of Eggs in Foods Clarify: To make or become clear or pure.
18Preparation of EggsEggs are extremely versatile and can be prepared alone or in combination with other foods.Countless recipes that include eggs can be cooked by either dry- or moist-heat methods.
19Preparation of Eggs Changes in Prepared Eggs The key to cooking eggs is to keep the temperature low and/or the cooking time short.Egg whites and yolks coagulate at different temperatures.
20Preparation of EggsDry-heat preparation of eggs primarily involves frying and baking.Egg dishes that are commonly fried are fried eggs, scrambled eggs, and omelets.
21Preparation of Eggs F I G U R E 1 3 - 9 Omelet preparation. (a) With wire whisk, beat eggs with salt and water just until well mixed, but not too frothy.(b) Slowly heat a 9-inch heavy skillet or omelet pan to medium heat. Temperature is correct when drops of cold water sizzle and roll off the pan’s surface. Add butter and heat until it sizzles but is not yet brown. Gently pour the egg mixture into the heated pan.
22Preparation of Eggs F I G U R E 1 3 - 9 Omelet preparation continued. (c) As egg mixture begins to set, use a spatula to push mixture back and allow unset egg to run onto pan’s surface.(d) Continue loosening and tilting until omelet is almost dry on top and golden-brown underneath.
23Preparation of Eggs F I G U R E 1 3 - 9 Omelet preparation continued. (e) Add filling ingredients.(f) Using spatula, fold omelet over itself. Tilt the pan and use the spatula to slide the omelet onto a plate.
24Preparation of Eggs A soufflé is actually a modified omelet. The main ingredients of a soufflé are a thick base generally made from a white sauce or pastry cream, an egg white foam, and flavoring ingredientsWhite sauce: A mixture of flour, milk, and usually fat.Stiffly beaten egg whites are folded into the thick egg yolk mixture.Figure 13-10
25Preparation of Eggs Moist-Heat Preparation Eggs can be prepared by moist heat using a variety of methods.Most common among these are:“Boiled” eggsCoddled eggs prepared in a cupPoached eggsA variety of custardsEggs that are prepared using the microwaveIn all cases, eggs are cooked at simmering temperatures.
26Preparation of Eggs Hard or Soft “Boiled” Hot-Start Method: Soft: 3 to 4 minutesMedium: 5 to 7 minutesHard: 12 to 15 minutesCold-Start Method:Soft: 1 minuteMedium: 3 to 5 minutesHard: 10 minutes
28Preparation of EggsCustards are mixtures of milk and/or cream, sweeteners (sugar, honey), flavorings (vanilla, nutmeg, etc.), and eggs or egg yolks.Custards are distinguished by whether they are sweet or savory, and by their preparation method: stirred or baked.Sweet custards are served as desserts in the form of puddings or as fillings.Savory (nonsweet) custards are used for dishes such as quiches.Stirred Custard (Soft Custard or Custard Sauce) ingredients are stirred while being heated.Baked custard mixes are poured into ungreased custard cups that are placed in the oven.
29Preparation of Eggs Microwaving Eggs cook extremely rapidly in a microwave oven.Special caution should be taken to avoid overcooking.Manufacturer’s instructions should be followed for microwave egg cooking.
30Storage of EggsEggs begin to deteriorate as soon as they are laid and lose quality very rapidly at room temperature.An egg will age more in one day at room temperature than in one week in the refrigerator.
31Storage of EggsThe size of an egg’s air cell provides another indication of its age.
32Storage of EggsRestaurants, food service institutions, and other food manufacturers must be especially careful about storing eggs, because they purchase such large quantities.Storage eggs, used by commercial food service establishments, are usually used within a month, but can be stored for up to six monthsStorage eggs: Eggs that are treated with a light coat of oil or plastic and stored in high humidity at low refrigerator temperatures very close to the egg’s freezing point (29° to 32°F/ –1.5° to 0°C).
33Storage of EggsFrozenFreezing a whole egg is not possible because it will crack under the expanding liquids.Food manufacturers solve this dilemma by breaking the eggs open at the processing plants where the contents are frozenWhole (whites and yolk mixed together)Separated as whites or yolks
35Storage of Eggs Dried Drying eggs is a simple process. Whole eggs or separated yolks are spray-dried to create a fine powder, which is mixed with anti-caking substances to prevent clumping.Egg whites are dried in different ways to form granule, flake, or milled textures.Once dried, eggs can be stored in the refrigerator for up to a year, but they must be kept in tightly closed containers to prevent the clumping that can result from moisture accumulation.
37Storage of Eggs Safety Tips The chances of an egg being internally contaminated are relatively low, less than one in 10,000 commercial eggs.It is more common for contamination to occur during handling and preparation after the egg has been removed from its shell.