Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Information Technology INT1001 Lecture 12 Privacy, Crime & Security 1.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Information Technology INT1001 Lecture 12 Privacy, Crime & Security 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Information Technology INT1001 Lecture 12 Privacy, Crime & Security 1

2 Computers Are Your Future Tenth Edition Chapter 9: Privacy, Crime, & Security Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall2

3 Privacy, Crime, & Security Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3

4 Privacy in Cyberspace Privacy is the ability of a person or entity to control and prevent others from collecting, using, and selling personal, confidential information. With the use of computers and the Internet, having anonymity, the means to communicate without disclosing your identity, has become more difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall4

5 Privacy in Cyberspace Technologies that jeopardize online anonymity include: Cookies Global unique identifiers Ubiquitous computing Radio frequency identification Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall5

6 Privacy in Cyberspace After a user visits a Web site, a small text file known as a cookie may be written to the user’s hard disk by the Web site. Although some cookies are used for justifiable reasons, this is not always the case. Some cookies are used to gather personal information without the user’s consent. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6

7 Privacy in Cyberspace Anonymous use of the Internet is made more difficult through the use of global unique identifiers (GUIDs), an identification number produced by software or a piece of hardware. Companies that have GUIDs integrated into their products usually do not inform the public. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall7

8 Privacy in Cyberspace The tendency to interact with more than one computer at a time is called ubiquitous computing. Given that smaller devices such as smartphones can receive and transmit personal user information, if they are lost, the privacy of the user could be compromised. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall8

9 Privacy in Cyberspace Radio frequency identification (RFID) uses radio waves to track a chip or tag. Often used for inventory control in stores Example of a concern about RFID technology: It could compromise a person’s anonymity and privacy if information stored on RFID tags attached to U.S. passports is misused Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9

10 Privacy in Cyberspace To protect society, governments should provide privacy rights including but not limited to: Informing users of the collection of information and its intended use. Allowing users to give or deny their consent to have their information collected. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall10

11 Privacy in Cyberspace Privacy online: Use protective software or devices such as Anonymous Surfing or IronKey Secure USB flash drives when using the Internet. Create e-mail addresses from free Web- based services whenever you use your e- mail address for such things as chat rooms and mailing lists. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall11

12 Privacy in Cyberspace Privacy online (continued): Teach children the importance of getting permission prior to giving out personal information over the Internet. Before you fill out any online registration forms, make sure the privacy policy statement of a Web site states that the information provided will not be sold. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall12

13 Privacy in Cyberspace Privacy at home: GPS capabilities are embedded in newer cell phones so they can be located. Services such as Wherify and uLocate can determine the precise location of a cell phone. Software is available to determine and provide notification when a cell phone leaves a specific geographic area. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall13

14 Privacy in Cyberspace Privacy at work: Refrain from making personal calls on a work phone. Avoid using a company e-mail account for personal purposes. Assume that your actions at work are being monitored. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall14

15 Privacy in Cyberspace Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall15

16 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Actions that violate the law are known as computer crimes. Crimes perpetrated through the use of the Internet are cybercrimes. The area of law dedicated to computer crime is called cyberlaw. Many Web sites educate users about cybercrime and cybercriminals. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall16

17 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall17

18 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Types of computer crime Identify theft: A criminal gains access to personal information in order to impersonate another Phishing: Legitimate-looking e-mails or Web sites are created in an attempt to obtain confidential data about a person for illegal purposes. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall18

19 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Types of computer crime (continued) Malware (short for malicious software): programs developed to intentionally harm or gain access to a computer system without permission. Includes spyware, viruses, worms, zombies, and Trojan horses Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall19

20 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Types of computer crime (continued) Spyware: software that gathers private information and tracks Web use, and provides that information to third parties Adware: a form of spyware that generates annoying pop-up and banner ads Keyloggers: keep track of keystrokes to provide cybercriminals with confidential data Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall20

21 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Types of computer crime (continued) Computer virus: code that is concealed inside a program and intended to harm or destroy files File infectors attach themselves to files. Boot sector viruses attach to the first tracks on a hard drive and execute each time you start the computer. Macro viruses attach to data files and take advantage of application macros. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall21

22 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall22

23 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Rogue forms of malware include: Time bomb: A virus program that remains dormant on a computer system until it is activated by a specific event Worm: Similar to a virus but does not need the action of a user to execute the code and cause damage Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall23

24 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Denial of service (DoS) attack Assaults an Internet server with so many requests that it cannot function Accomplished through zombies, individual computers in a botnet—a group of “hijacked” computers. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall24

25 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Trojan horse Normal-looking program that includes concealed instructions Created to cause harm Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall25

26 Computer Crime & Cybercrime As the stealing of private and confidential information increases, the possibility of fraud also increases. The physical stealing of computer equipment is also growing, especially computer components such as microprocessors and chips. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall26

27 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Types of fraud and theft Memory shaving: only a portion of RAM is stolen to make the theft less evident Password stealing: unauthorized gathering of passwords Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall27

28 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Techniques to obtain passwords Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall28

29 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Types of fraud and theft (continued) Salami shaving: an embezzlement tool in which a program takes a little money from numerous accounts Data diddling: individuals change data so that it is hard to determine that the resulting theft has occurred Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall29

30 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Types of fraud and theft (continued) Forgery: information is transmitted over the Internet as if from a user by an illegal source that appears to be legitimate. A high percentage of cybercrimes go unreported because of blackmail. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall30

31 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Crackers Cybergangs Virus authors Swindlers Shills Cyberstalkers Sexual predators Cyberbullies Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall31 Types of computer criminals

32 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall32 Examples of Internet Scams

33 Computer Crime & Cybercrime Cyberstalkers use the Internet, social networking sites, and e-mail to harass or threaten an individual. Most perpetrators are men. Most victims are college-age women. Cyberbullies send threatening messages via e-mail or text messages. Cyberbullying involves minors. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall33

34 Security Computer security risk is: Any intentional or unintentional action that results in damaging a computer system and/or its data Increased by wireless LANs because transmissions occur over shared airwaves instead of dedicated lines. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall34

35 Security Security options available for wireless networks include: WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) WPA2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall35

36 Security Threats to the security of computer systems include: Corporate espionage Information warfare Security loophole detection programs Attacks on safety-critical systems Terrorism Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall36

37 Security To reduce security risks: Use an uninterruptible power supply (UPS), which supplies additional power during power outages or electrical current fluctuations to prevent damage or loss to computer components and/or data. Control access to computer systems though appropriate password selection and know- and-have authentication. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall37

38 Security To reduce security risks (continued): Use biometric authentication—the use of voice recognition, retinal scans, and fingerprint scans for authentication purposes. Incorporate firewalls, which can be hardware or software, to prevent unauthorized access. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall38

39 Security Avoiding scams on the Internet and preventing cyberstalking Use common sense. Don’t give out personal information. Be cynical of information provided in chat rooms. Read documents carefully. Remain cautious when using the Internet. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall39

40 What You’ve Learned The lack of complete federal regulations to protect the right to privacy for individuals has resulted in numerous Web sites collecting and accumulating personal information. Computer crime and cybercrime are on the rise, including such crimes as identity theft, malware, fraud, and theft. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall40

41 What You’ve Learned Computer criminals, such as crackers, cybergang members, and virus authors, are often the cause of the increase in computer security risks. Security risks are events, actions, and situations that could lead to losses. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall41

42 What You’ve Learned Although no computer system can be totally safe, you can take simple steps to protect your computer and data. Encryption can be used to guard privacy online through public key encryption. The government must keep trying to find a balance between its need to know and the privacy rights of individuals. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall42


Download ppt "Information Technology INT1001 Lecture 12 Privacy, Crime & Security 1."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google