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Computers Are Your Future Eleventh Edition Chapter 7: Networks: Communicating & Sharing Resources Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as.

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Presentation on theme: "Computers Are Your Future Eleventh Edition Chapter 7: Networks: Communicating & Sharing Resources Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as."— Presentation transcript:

1 Computers Are Your Future Eleventh Edition Chapter 7: Networks: Communicating & Sharing Resources Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall1

2 2 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

3 Networks: Communicating & Sharing Resources Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3

4 Objectives Understand basic networking concepts. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of networks. Distinguish between peer-to-peer (P2P) and client/server local area networks (LANs). Define topology and understand how the three LAN topologies differ. 4Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

5 Objectives Explain the importance of network protocols. Name the most widely used LAN protocol and its versions. Identify the special components of a wide area network (WAN) that differentiate it from a LAN. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall5

6 Objectives Contrast circuit-switching and packet- switching networks and explain their respective strengths and weaknesses. Identify the options, components, configuration, and maintenance of a home area network (HAN). Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6

7 Network Fundamentals A network links multiple computer systems to enable them to share data and resources. Categories of computer networks for business and organizations: Local area network (LAN) Wide area network (WAN) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall7

8 Network Fundamentals Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall8

9 Network Fundamentals LAN Uses cables, radio waves, or infrared signals Links computers in a limited geographic area WAN Uses long-distance transmission media Links computer systems a few miles or thousands of miles apart The Internet is the largest WAN Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9

10 Network Fundamentals Communication devices convert data into signals to travel over a medium. Computers Modems Routers Switches Network interface cards (NICs) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall10

11 Network Fundamentals A node is any device connected to a network. Network interface card (NIC) An expansion board or adapter that provides a connection between the computer and the network Notebook computers have wireless NICs Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall11

12 Network Fundamentals Routers Connect two or more networks Determine the best route to transmit data Switches Filter and forward data between nodes Are similar to routers but work within a single network Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall12

13 Network Fundamentals Wireless access point (WAP) Receives and transmits radio signals Joins wireless nodes to a wired network Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall13

14 Network Fundamentals File server High-speed computer that provides program and data files to network users Contains the network operating system (NOS) File directories for file and resource location Computerized software update distribution Internet services support Protection of services and data Access to connected hardware by authorized users Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall14

15 Advantages & Disadvantages of Networking Networking Advantages Hardware cost reduction Sharing of information, data, and applications Data management centralization Linking of people Disadvantages Loss of autonomy Lack of privacy Security threats Loss of productivity Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall15

16 Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks Share files without a file server Are easy to set up Are best used for home or small offices with no more than 10 computers Do not require a network operating system Can be slow if there are too many users Security is not strong Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall16 Local Area Networks

17 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall17 Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks Local Area Networks

18 Client/server networks Made up of one or more file servers and clients (any type of computer) Client software enables requests to be sent to the server Wired or wireless connections Do not slow down with heavy use Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall18 Local Area Networks

19 Virtual private network Operates over the Internet Is accessible by authorized users for quick access to corporate information Uses secure, encrypted connections and special software Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall19 Local Area Networks

20 LAN topologies Network topology is the physical design of a LAN. Topology resolves contention, the conflict that occurs when two or more computers on the network attempt to transmit at the same time. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall20

21 LAN topologies Bus topology Practical for home or small office One node transmits at a time Star topology For office buildings, computer labs, and WANs Easy to add users Ring topology For a division of a company or one floor Not in common use today Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall21 Local Area Networks

22 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall22 Local Area Networks

23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall23 Local Area Networks

24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall24 Local Area Networks

25 LAN protocols Protocols are the standards used by networks to permit communication between network-connected devices. A network’s protocol suite contains the protocols of the network and specifies its network architecture, or how the network works. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall25 Local Area Networks

26 LAN protocols Network layers divide architecture for separate treatment. Each network layer can operate and be governed by its own protocols. The vertical arrangement of network layers is called a protocol stack. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall26

27 Local Area Networks LAN protocols LAN technologies Ethernet is the most-used LAN protocol. The most popular versions are Ethernet star networks, which use twisted-pair wiring and switches. Wi-Fi Uses radio waves to provide a wireless LAN standard at Ethernet speeds Needs a central access point, which could be a wireless router Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall27

28 Wide Area Networks Point of presence (POP) WAN connection point used to obtain access to the WAN Wired or wireless Backbones High-capacity WAN transmission lines gigaPoP (gigabits per second point of presence) transfers data exceeding 1 Gbps Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall28

29 Wide Area Networks WAN protocols Internet protocols Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Defines how Internet-connected computers can exchange, control, and confirm messages Internet Protocol (IP) Provides a distinct identification to any computer connected to the Internet: the IP address TCP/IP Together, they define how the Internet works. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall29

30 WAN protocols Circuit switching Used by the public switched telephone network to send data over a physical end-to-end circuit Provides a direct connection between devices Packet switching Used for computer communication Divides and sends outgoing messages as packets, which are reassembled upon receipt More efficient and less expensive than circuit switching Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall30 Wide Area Networks

31 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall31 Wide Area Networks

32 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall32 Wide Area Networks

33 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall33 Wide Area Networks

34 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall34 Wide Area Networks

35 WAN applications: , conferencing, document exchange, remote database access LAN to LAN Connections Transaction Acquisition Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall35

36 Home Networks Wired Home Networks Ethernet networks link computers with a switch or router. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall36

37 Home Networks Wireless Home Networks Wi-Fi is the wireless standard. Uses radio signals Communicates through network access points Needs wireless adapter or router Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall37

38 Home Networks Setting up a home network Planning Select technology Purchase equipment and firewall software Configuring a wired network Connect each computer to the router Plug printer, scanner, etc., into a computer Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall38

39 Home Networks Setting up a home network Configuring a wireless network Connect each node to wireless router with a wireless adapter Connect DSL or cable modem to wireless router Maintenance and support Minimal maintenance required Unplug power source from router and other peripherals and restart computer to correct problems Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall39

40 Home Networks Future of home networking Control household appliances. Protect homes with security systems. Manage home network events through central control units in new homes. Utilize wireless systems. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall40

41 Summary Computer networks of two or more linked computers share resources and exchange data. The two main types of networks are local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs). There are advantages and disadvantages to using a computer network. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall41

42 Summary 42Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Two main categories of LANs are peer- to-peer (P2P) and client/server. Topologies of a LAN include the bus topology, the ring topology, and the star topology. Protocols define the manner in which network devices communicate.

43 Summary The Ethernet is the most popular LAN protocol. Distinguishing components of a WAN, as compared with a LAN, are its point of presence (POP) and backbones. WAN connections may be made through analog telephone calls or digital hookups. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall43

44 Summary The technologies on which WAN protocols are based use either circuit switching (PSTN) or packet switching (the Internet). Wired home networks use Ethernet cable, and wireless home networks rely on Wi-Fi radio signals. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall44


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