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Presentation on theme: "E XERCISE S CIENCE C HAPTER 18: H UMAN G ROWTH AND D EVELOPMENT."— Presentation transcript:



3 A REAS OF H UMAN D EVELOPMENT : Four key components to human development are: Physical development Cognitive development Motor or skills development Social development

4 A GE AND P HYSICAL D EVELOPMENT : Chronological Age  Age measured in years, months, and days Skeletal Age  Age indicated by the physical maturity of the skeleton Nutrition, diet, disease, and major bone injuries can cause the skeletal age to lag behind the chronological age Developmental Age  Age as expressed in one’s ability to perform certain tasks

5 H UMAN M ORPHOLOGY : EndomorphMesomorphEctomorph -More fatty tissue -Thicker body parts -Mature Early -Stocky/heavily muscled -Broader Bodies -Late to reach maturity -Thinner Body -Narrow hips/longer arms and legs

6 S TAGES OF H UMAN G ROWTH AND D EVELOPMENT : Four basic stages each with fundamental aspects and characteristics Infancy/Toddler: Zero to two-three years Childhood: Four to 10 years Puberty/Adolescence: 11 to 18 years Adulthood: 18 years and older

7 I NFANCY /T ODDLER Most marked growth in humans Double birth weight in six months; triple it in a year By end of second year brain is 75% of adult weight Body length typically increases by 50% Considerable muscular development Gains in ability to perform basic tasks Grasp, crawl, pull to stand, walk Most toddlers walk by age two, run by age three

8 C HILDHOOD : Rapid stage of growth from four to six years From six to ten years the body “stabilizes” Uniform relationship between bone and tissue growth and development occurs

9 P UBERTY /A DOLESCENCE : Growth speeds up during this phase Physical Psychological Sexual maturity Pituitary gland triggers in both sexes Marked changes in physical appearance Girls: breasts, body curves, menstruation Boys: semen, facial and body hair, deepening voice

10 A DULTHOOD : Most growth has taken place Other physical changes: Weight gain Reduced oxygen capacity Rise in blood pressure Joint deterioration Many conditions caused by: Diminished exercise Diet and nutrition issues Increased stress and responsibilities

11 P HASES OF M OVEMENT : Reflexive movement (birth to four months) Humans show controlled motor development Rudimentary Movement: (birth to two years) Locomotor activity Manipulation and stability movements begin Fundamental Movement: (two to seven years) Basic movement skills; three phases Initial Elementary Mature Sport-Related Movement: (seven years to adulthood) Three phases General Specific specialized

12 D IFFERENT R ATES OF G ROWTH : Cephalocaudal Sequence: Growth progresses fastest in the head Followed by the trunk Lastly the extremities Proximodistal Sequence: Body movements that originate closer to the centre of the body seem to develop earlier than those that originate further from the centre

13 F ACTORS A FFECTING P HYSICAL G ROWTH : Glandular/Hormonal Activity Hormones affect metabolism Glands can suffer from diseases Heredity Difficult to predict many areas of genetically inherited growth Nutrition/Diet Inadequate/unbalanced diet can lead to physical development issues Physical Activity Lack of activity harmful/excess also negative Balance is key Sociocultural Factors Can be difficult to assess Depends on opportunity/values

14 C OGNITIVE D EVELOPMENT : Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor (birth to two years of age) Characterized by infant demonstrating intelligence by means of motor activity without use of symbols Knowledge based purely on immediate experience Ability to use memory to recall objects and events Pre-Operational (two to seven years of age) Demonstrate intelligence through use of symbols Considerable language development Significant growth in memory and imagination

15 C OGNITIVE D EVELOPMENT - CONT ’ D Concrete Operational (seven to 11 years of age) Logical thinking develops Able to solve concrete problems logically Reversibility or operational thinking develops Develop capacity for empathy Formal Operational (11 to 15 years of age) Demonstrate intelligence through ability to solve increasingly complicated abstract problems using logic Return to egocentric thinking in early stage Begin to think about social issues and one’s own identity and appearance

16 S OCIAL D EVELOPMENT : Socialization  Ways in which, from a young age, humans form attachments with others Friendship Reciprocal relationship (doing things for one another in roughly equal measure) Committed over a long period of time Notion that common interest must be shared

17 I NDIVIDUAL A TTRIBUTES : The child: Is usually in a positive mood Is not excessively dependant on the teacher, assistant, or other adults Usually comes to the program or setting willingly Usually copes with rebuffs and reverses adequately Shows the capacity to emphasize Has a positive relationship with one two peers; shows capacity to really care about them, miss them if absent, and so forth Displays the capacity for humour Does not seem to be acutely or chronically lonely

18 S OCIAL S KILLS A TTRIBUTES CHECKLIST : The child usually: Approaches others positively Expresses wishes and preferences clearly Asserts own rights and needs appropriately Is not easily intimidated by bullies Expresses frustrations and anger effectively Makes relevant contributions to ongoing activities Takes turns fairly easily Shows interest in others Negotiates and compromises appropriately Does not draw inappropriate attention to self Accepts peers and adults of ethnic groups other than own Interacts non-verbally with other children (e.g., smiles, waves, nods)

19 P EER R ELATIONSHIP A TTRIBUTES CHECKLIST : The child is: Usually accepted versus neglected or rejected by other children Sometimes invited by other children to join them in play, friendship, and work


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