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VUS8 TEST #5 Lecture Notes Progressivism. Working Conditions Working conditions in the American industries were many times awful and very dangerous Many.

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Presentation on theme: "VUS8 TEST #5 Lecture Notes Progressivism. Working Conditions Working conditions in the American industries were many times awful and very dangerous Many."— Presentation transcript:

1 VUS8 TEST #5 Lecture Notes Progressivism

2 Working Conditions Working conditions in the American industries were many times awful and very dangerous Many children were forced to work Families needed the children to work and make $ or the family could not survive Most people worked at least a 10 hour workday People were paid barely enough for survival No money was left over for luxuries Most $ went toward housing, food, and clothing Workers had no job security Workers had no benefits Many people refer to these type of factories as sweatshops

3 Company towns began to rise up around factories Towns run by the company (factory) owners Most of the money earned by workers was given back to the owners when people purchased items in the town As more immigrants came to the US, the labor supply increased This increase caused a competition for jobs This competition caused wages to be lower for the workers— actually like by the factory owners

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5 Unions Because working conditions were so bad, many of the workers and some government officials began to speak out Workers realized they needed to ban together in order to get changes The workers will create labor unions Unions will favor restricting immigration Reduction in labor supply would increase wages

6 1.) Knights of Labor: The 1 st national labor union to remain active for more than a few years Formed in 1869 by a group of tailors 1880s: the union grew into a national organization Will eventually accept all employed people Farmers Merchants Unskilled workers Proposed laws to cut the workday down to 8 hours Proposed equal pay for men and women

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8 2.) American Federation of Labor (AFL): Led by Samuel Gompers The largest labor organization Represented about 1.5 million workers Organized from skilled workers Became a national union in the early 1900s Called for reforms, but did not trust the government Saw a strong union as more capable of working with industry owners than the government Advocated using strikes to improve wages and hours Used boycotts as a means of peaceful protest

9 Samuel Gompers

10 3.) American Railway Union: Led by Eugene V. Debs United railway workers

11 4.) Industrial Ladies Garments Workers Union: Union created for seamstresses Fought to get an 8-hour workday for the workers

12 Labor Strikes For unions to get changes, most had to go on strike—a work stoppage The unions wanted to help the workers get reduce hours and more pay Strikes could become very violent

13 1.) Haymarket Square: 1886: workers went on strike in Chicago Striking workers held a protest at Haymarket Square in Chicago They were protesting after the Chicago police had shot 4 strikers The rally turned violent and became a riot after a bomb exploded and police opened fire on the crowd 7 police were killed 4 labor leaders will be executed for their crimes

14 Haymarket Square Riot Haymarket Square Video

15 2.) Homestead Strike: 1892: steelworkers were striking in Homestead, PA at one of Andrew Carnegie’s steel plants A battle broke out between the striking steel workers and the strike breakers When it was over 13 people were dead

16 Homestead Strike Video

17 3.) Pullman Strike: 1894: Railway workers, led by Eugene V. Debs, refused to switch the Pullman Company’s rail cars from one track to another Federal troops were brought in by the U. S. Attorney General Many people in the US began to fear an international conspiracy Anti-labor sentiment began to grow in the US Many saw a need for the American Government to get involved in industry

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19 Progressivism Progressivism was the name given to the different reform movements that attempted to fix problems associated with immigration, city growth, and the increasing power of giant corporations The movement was spurred on by several things: The excesses of the “Gilded Age” (Glittered with wealth, but rotten to the core) Income disparity between the classes—the rich were getting richer and the poor were getting poorer Practices of the Robber Barons (powerful business men and bankers) They used whatever means necessary to make themselves rich Bad working conditions for labor Child labor Long hours Low wages Lack of job security Lack of benefits Company towns Employment for women

20 The progressive reformers wanted to do a lot: A government controlled by the people Government regulation of big business To get rid of social injustices Pass laws protecting workers and the poor Reform town and state governments

21 1.) Muckrakers: Writers who were involved with the spirit of reform These writers tried to motivate the public on certain issues Upton Sinclair Wrote the book The Jungle He wrote about the disgusting conditions under which food, especially meat, was prepared Ida Tarbell Wrote History of the Standard Oil Company Book described how John Rockefeller amassed his power and wealth

22 Florence Kelley Exposed the hazards of child labor Showed that children were working in the most hazardous conditions in factories She wanted the federal government to outlaw child labor She organized boycotts against goods manufactured by children Jane Adams Created Hull House (a settlement house) Immigrants and the poor could come and learn English, talk about politics Hull House also took care of the sick and injured

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25 Florence Kelley

26 Jane Adams’ Hull House

27 2.) Meat Inspection Act: Brought about by Sinclair’s The Jungle 1906: President T. Roosevelt pushed the Meat Inspection Act through Congress Strict standards were set for meat-packers A system of federal meat inspection was created Outlawed the use of misleading labels Outlawed the used of dangerous chemical preservatives

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29 3.) Pure Food and Drug Act: Passed on the same day as the Meat Inspection Act The act was a response to falsely labeled drugs for the healing of all sorts of ailments Prohibited the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure or falsely labeled foods in interstate commerce Contents had to be accurately labeled

30 4.) National Parks: Some parts of the American wilderness were being run by industry and big business Many conservationists (Johan Muir) persuaded the federal government to create 13 forest reserves with over 21 million acres of land Pres. T. Roosevelt created 5 national parks 1916: the National Park Service was created to run the 5 national parks

31 5.) Settlement Houses: Many middle class reformers built places that provided educational and social services to poor people 1851: YMCA built housing for young men coming to the cities The Salvation Army built shelters and opened up soup kitchens to help the poor Jane Adams—Hull House

32 Progressive Changes in Government and Economics There was a lot of economic instability after the Civil War Many believed in laissez-faire economics the government should stay out of business Andrew Carnegie believed in laissez-faire economics Laissez-faire economics was NOT a good idea Large industrialists drove out competition and began creating monopolies The government began to step in to place controls over the “robber barons” and runaway industry

33 1.) Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC): Created out of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887 Robber barons had monopolized railroad routes The barons could set the prices on the use of these routes as high as they wanted Prices continued to increase The ICC was formed in response to these higher prices ICC oversaw interstate rail commerce ICC banned monopolistic practices

34 2.) Federal Trade Commission (FTC): Created in 1914 by President Woodrow Wilson Designed to stop unfair trading and business practices among companies Prevented companies from working together to keep prices high Trying to establish fair trade

35 3.) Sherman Anti-Trust Act: 1890: enacted by Congress Banned business activities that reduced competition Act was difficult to enforce because the details of the law were confusing Supreme Court usually interpreted the Act in favor of the businesses, not the government

36 4.) Clayton Act: 1914: Passed by Congress Designed to broaden the Sherman Anti-Trust Act Promoted competition by keeping companies from working together in order to reduce competition Outlawed price fixing

37 5.) 16 th Amendment: Passed in 1913 Allowed the federal government to tax income—the 1 st income tax

38 6.) Federal Reserve Act: In the early 1900s, it became clear that the U. S. needed a strong central bank to regulate the nation’s private banks 1913: the Federal Reserve Act was passed by Woodrow Wilson Created a network of public banks that could issue currency, make loans, and regulate private banking

39 7.) 17 th Amendment: Called for the direct election of U. S. senators by popular vote Before this amendment, state legislatures elected U. S. Senators 8.) 19 th Amendment: Passed in 1920 Pushed by women such as Susan B. Anthony Resulted from women’s work during World War I Gave women the right to vote (allowed for women’s suffrage)

40 Susan B. Anthony

41 9.) Wisconsin Reforms: Reforms to the way state government was controlled Referendum—direct vote (of the people) in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy Initiative—a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote Recall—voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote

42 10.) Local Government—City Manager: Many city mayors had become very corrupt Many cities began moving away from elected mayors because they had become too corrupt Hired (appointed) city managers began to replace the elected mayors First occurred in Staunton, VA The city managers performed the same duties as what a mayor would

43 Leaders of the Progressive Changes Theodore Roosevelt—”Square Deal” Based on 3 principles: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection Aimed at helping middle class citizens and involved attacking plutocracy and bad trusts while at the same time protecting business from the extreme demands of organized labor Promotion of anti-trust suits Woodrow Wilson—”New Freedom” Called for less government Added new controls such as the Federal Reserve System and the Clayton Antitrust Act Business Reform Banking Reform

44 Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt

45 Woodrow Wilson

46 African Americans After the Civil War, there was lots of discrimination toward African Americans and feed slaves Many laws existed limiting the freedoms of African Americans Intimidation and crimes were directed against African Americans—lynchings Many prominent African Americans began the push to end racism during the progressive period

47 1.) Booker T. Washington: A major leader against racism Son of slave parents Created the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama in 1881 School designed to teach African Americans vocational skills He believed African Americans could achieve economic prosperity, independence, and the respect of whites He accepted social separation (segregation)

48 Booker T. Washington

49 2.) W. E. B. Dubois: Believed education was meaningless without equality Created the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) Wanted African American children to have equal opportunities in education

50 W. E. B. Dubois

51 3.) Ida B. Wells: Led an anti-lynching crusade Called for the federal government to take action against crimes against African Americans

52 Ida B. Wells

53 Jim Crow Laws made it legal to segregate blacks and whites Blacks were forced to: Ride in separate rail cars Use separate restrooms Eat in different sections of restaurants 1896: Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme court decision that ruled the segregation was legal as long as the facilities were equal Basically said the Jim Crow laws were legal

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55 During the early 20 th Century (1900s), many African Americans began what is termed the “Great Migration” Many African Americans began moving to northern cities They were looking for jobs Trying to escape the poverty in the South Trying to escape discrimination in the South


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