Presentation on theme: "U.S. History Chapter 18 Notes America Claims an Empire Global competition prompts the United States to expand its influence and territory engage in conflicts."— Presentation transcript:
U.S. History Chapter 18 Notes America Claims an Empire Global competition prompts the United States to expand its influence and territory engage in conflicts around the globe, and build the Panama Canal.
Section 1 Imperialism and America Beginning in 1867 and continuing through the century, global competition causes the United States to expand
United Sates expands overseas Fleet of 16 U.S. battleships sail around the world Showed the world that the U.S. was a power to be reckoned with Important step in expanding America's international interest The Great White Fleet
Reasons for American Expansion Imperialism - policy of extending control over weaker nations - European countries practiced this in the 1700's and 1800's 1800s - Europeans divided up most of Africa & competed for China Japan joined race for China & U.S. decided to expand overseas U.S. didn't want to do this in the beginning - Once colonies ourselves - Couldn't afford a war Our attitude changed in the late 1800's for several reasons - Nationalism - U.S. united again following Civil War - People wanted to be a world power - Needed colonies to be one
Reasons for American Expansion U.S developed a desire for Desire for military strength - Admiral Alfred T. Mahan urges U.S. to build up navy to compete - U.S. builds modern battleships, becomes third largest naval power
Reasons for American Expansion New ideas - Charles Darwin - survival of the fittest - Social Darwinism - Americans believed that their society was superior and would spread throughout the world People argued the U.S. had duty to Christianize or civilize inferior peoples - Also used to support racism
Reasons for American Expansion Foreign Markets - people wanted new markets for American goods - U.S. farms, factories produced more than Americans could consume - U.S. needed raw materials& new markets for goods - Foreign trade was the solution to overproduction, unemployment, & depression - Began exporting more than we were importing
Seward and Expansion William Seward – Served as Secretary of State under Lincoln & Johnson - Tried to gain new lands for U.S ordered navy to occupy the Midway Islands in the Pacific Ocean - Valuable as a Fueling station to refuel ships
Seward and Expansion Arranged for the purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million - Had trouble convincing House to fund purchase - Alaska called Sewards Icebox, Sewards Folly - Alaska rich in timber, minerals, oil Arranged for the U.S. to buy the Virgin Islands from Denmark (Didn't actually occur until 1917) - Also wanted to add the Hawaiian Islands
The Annexation of Hawaii 1790s - U.S. merchants began stopping in Hawaii on way to China, India Early 1800's - Christian missionaries moved to Hawaii to convert the people - Yankee missionaries founded schools & churches on islands - Many of the missionaries descendants became wealthy sugar and pineapple planters - They controlled the government
The Annexation of Hawaii Mid-1800s, American- owned sugar plantations 75% of islands wealth 1887, businessmen force King Kalakaua to limit vote to landowners 1887, U.S. pressures Hawaii to allow naval base at Pearl Harbor - Became refueling station
The Annexation of Hawaii Queen Liliuokalani came to power - She wanted to regain control of the island - Tried to remove landowning requirement Planters called the U.S. government for help Hawaii was valuable refueling station U.S. sent marines - Marines and planters overthrew Queen
The Annexation of Hawaii Set up an independent republic - Sanford Dole named president Hawaii asked to be annexed by the u.s. - Grover Cleveland didn't want to annex it - President Cleveland cannot make Dole surrender power to queen - recognized Republic of Hawaii
The Annexation of Hawaii 1898 – Hawaii was annexed following the Spanish American War - Congress proclaimed Hawaii a U.S. territory under President McKinley
Section 2 The Spanish-American War In 1898, the United States goes to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain.
Rebellion against Spain Spain's empire was crumbling - Had once controlled most of the Americas - Late 1800's - Spain had only a few colonies Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Philippines began wanting independence
Rebellion against Spain Situation in Cuba interested U.S. - Cuba located 90 miles south of U.S. - American business interest had been growing (sugarcane) - Fighting caused trade with Cuba to drop
Rebellion against Spain Spain sent General Valeriano Weyler to Cuba to crush the revolt - He treated the Cubans harshly - Put about 300,000 Cubans in concentration camps - Many died of starvation American press told stories about the cruelty to stir up people emotions
Rebellion against Spain Two papers fighting for customers (circulation war) - The World owned by Joseph Pulitzer - Journal owned by William Randolph Hearst They wrote sensationalized writing stories to attract customers - Called yellow journalism
America goes to War President McKinley didn't want to go to war - He had fought in the Civil War Public pressure forced McKinley to take action against Spain - He demanded that Spain stop its harsh treatment of Cubans - Spain sent general Weyler home but didn't stop treatment February 9, U.S. recovered a private letter written by a Spanish minister named Enrique Dupuy de Lôme - He called President McKinley weak - Spain apologized & de Lôme resigned - American public remained angry
America goes to War U.S.S. Maine sent to pick up U.S. citizens, protect U.S. property - The Maine exploded in Havana Harbor - U.S. blames Spain - "Remember the Maine became war cry
America goes to War April 29, President McKinley declared Cuba independent – The Spanish- American War began
Pacific War U.S. entered war to fight for Cuba's freedom 1 st battle takes place half way around the world - Manila Bay in the Philippines Before war Teddy Roosevelt sent fleet of ships to Hong Kong
Pacific War Led by Commodore George Dewey May 1, battle takes place - Filipinos, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, supported Dewey - Over 300 Spanish killed and defeated - Dewey became hero in U.S - Bubble gum named after him (Dewey's Chewys).
The War in the Caribbean U.S. only had 28,000 men when war started - 200,000 signed up within 6 months Teddy Roosevelt picked a group of soldiers known as the "Rough Riders" - Chose a diverse group - Cowboys, N.Y. City policemen, athletes, and American Indians
The War in the Caribbean They set sail for Cuba from Tampa, Florida - Had to wear wool uniforms (lightweight uniforms hadn't arrived yet) - Food spoiled in the heat - Men became sick U.S. wanted to capture the port of Santiago - Had to control San Juan Hill to do this
The War in the Caribbean Rough Riders attacked and took San Juan Hill - Didn't have horses (they were left behind in Florida) - Roosevelt declared hero of attack on strategic San Juan Hill - Aug Spain signs truce
Treaty of Paris August 12, 1898 – Spain & U.S. signed armistice Met in Paris to make treaty U.S. shocked Spain at the treaty signing in France - Demanded the Spain hand over Puerto Rico, the island of Guam, and the Philippines (war had been fought over Cuba) - Spain didn't have any choice Spain freed Cuba; handed Guam, Puerto Rico to U.S. & sold Philippines Treaty of Paris touched off a great debate over imperialism - McKinley tried to justify annexation of Philippines on moral grounds - Opponents gave political, moral, economic arguments against
Results of the War U.S. didn't grant Cuba independence immediately - Cuba had to agree to the Platt Amendment - It gave the U.S. the right interfere in Cuban affairs when there was a threat to life, property, and individual liberty - Cuba had to allow an American naval base at Guantanamo Bay until 1999
Results of the War Puerto Rico became a U.S. territory Had its own elected legislature and a governor chosen by the president 1917, Puerto Ricans made U.S. citizens; elect both houses
Results of the War Guam was controlled by the U.S. navy President McKinley decided that the Philippines should become an American Colony - Philippines wanted independence - Revolted against the U.S U.S. troops finally restored order July 4, 1946, Philippines became independent
Section 3 Acquiring New Lands In the early 1900s, the United States engages in conflicts in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines.
Ruling Puerto Rico Not all Puerto Ricans wanted independence. Some wanted statehood, while still others hope for some measure of local self- government as an American territory. -Puerto Rico was important to the US for maintaining a US presence in the Caribbean and for protecting a future canal in Panama.
Ruling Puerto Rico *Foraker Act- passed in 1900, this act ended military rule and set up a civil government in Puerto Rico. -The act gave the president of the US the power to appoint Puerto Rico's governor and members of the upper house of this legislature.
Cuba and the US -When the US declared war against Spain in 1898; it recognized Cuba's independence from Spain. *Teller Amendment- stated that the US had no intention of taking over any part of Cuba. -US aided Cuba -- food, clothes, schools, medical research, and sanitation.
US and Cuba -It remained in effect for 31 years. Cuba became a US *protectorate- a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger nation.
Teller Amendment (1898) Platt Amendment (1903) 1.Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. 2.The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. 3.Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. 4.Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt. Cuban Independence? Senator Orville Platt
Emilio Aguinaldo L eader of the Filipino Uprising. July 4, 1946: Philippine independence
Power in the Pacific U.S. always had interest in Pacific U.S. navy landed in Tokyo Bay - Led by Commodore Matthew Perry He carried a letter from President Millard Fillmore U.S. wanted Japan to open ports to American trade - Carried gifts - Made it clear that Japan should not refuse president's request
Interest in China U.S. joined other countries in competing for control of China - Saw China as vast potential market for investment & opportunity France, Britain, Japan, Russia had settlements, & spheres of influence U.S. came up with trade policy U.S. Secretary of State John Hay issued Open Door notes
Interest in China Open Door Policy - no single country had a monopoly on trade with China - Notes ask imperialist nations to share trading rights with U.S. - Other powers reluctantly agree
The Boxer Rebellion in China Europeans dominate most large Chinese cities Chinese formed secret societies, including Boxers, to expel foreigners Boxers killed hundreds of foreigners & Chinese converts to Christianity U.S., Britain, France, Germany, Japan put down Boxer Rebellion
Protecting American Rights Hay issued new Open Door notes saying U. S. would keep trade open Open Door policy reflected beliefs about U.S. economy: - Growth depended on exports - U.S. had right to keep markets open - Closing of area threatens U.S. survival
The Anti-Imperialist League Several; well known Americans opposed overseas expansion - Andrew Carnegie - Mark Twain They believed that the U.S. should not deny other the right to govern themselves Their argument lost as everyone celebrated the war victory McKinleys reelection confirmed most Americans favored imperialism
Section 4 America as a World Power The Russo-Japanese War, the Panama Canal, and the Mexican Revolution add to Americas military and economic power.
Teddy Roosevelt and the World Roosevelt didnt not want Europeans to control world economy & politics Japan & Russia disputed control of Korea (Japanese-Russo War) Roosevelt negotiated Treaty of Portsmouth: - Japan received Manchuria & Korea - Roosevelt won Nobel Peace Prize U.S. & Japan continued diplomatic talks - Pledged to respect each others possessions
The Panama Canal U.S. wanted canal to cut travel time of commercial & military ships Colombia controlled the isthmus of Panama (Best Spot) U.S. bought French companys route through Panama Negotiated with Colombia to build Panama Canal - Talks broke down
The Panama Canal French company agent helped organize Panamanian rebellion - U.S. gave military aid Panama gained independence U.S., Panama sign treaty U.S. paid $10 million for Canal zone
Constructing the Canal Construction of canal is one of worlds greatest engineering feats - fought diseases & geographic obstacles - at height, 43,400 workers employed 5000 workers died Finished in 1914 Canal cost $352 million dollars
Policing the Hemisphere Roosevelt wanted it made clear that the U.S was the leading power in the Americas - Speak softly and carry a big stick" Roosevelt reminded Europe about the Monroe Doctrine - It said that the U.S would police the western hemisphere Added the Roosevelt Corollary - added to the Monroe Doctrine - Said that if a situation arose that required international police power the U.S. would do the job
Policing the Hemisphere Later presidents expanded Roosevelt's" Big Stick Diplomacy" - Encouraged U.S. companies to invest in Latin America - Promised military support
Policing the Hemisphere Dollar diplomacyU.S. guarantees foreign loans by U.S. business Latin Americans saw U.S. as bullies - Created distrust between U.S. and it Latin American neighbors
U.S. involvement in Latin America Business leaders realized they could by products cheaply in Latin America and sell them in the U.S. (coffee, bananas, and copper) Bought large tracts of land - Many people lost their land and were forced to take low paying jobs
Woodrow Wilsons Missionary Diplomacy Missionary diplomacy - U.S. had moral responsibility: - would not recognize regimes that are oppressive, undemocratic A lot of U.S. investment in Mexico under dictator Porfirio Díaz, 1911, peasants & workers led by Francisco Madero overthrew Díaz (Mexican Revolution) General Victoriano Huerta took over government & Madero was murdered Wilson refused to recognize Huertas government
Intervention in Mexico Huertas officers arrested U.S. sailors & quickly release them Wilson ordered Marines to occupy Veracruz Argentina, Brazil, & Chile mediated to avoid war Huerta regime falls & nationalist Venustiano Carranza became new president
Rebellion in Mexico Francisco Pancho & Villa, Emiliano Zapata opposed Carranza - Zapata wanted land reform - Villa was a fierce nationalist Wilson recognizes Carranzas government Villa threatened reprisals - Villas men killed Americans
Chasing Villa Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing led forces to capture Villa Carranza demanded withdrawal of U.S. troops - Wilson refuses at first U.S. faced war in Europe & wants peace on southern border (WWI) - Wilson ordered Pershing home Mexico adopted new constitution: - Government controls oil, minerals - restricted foreign investors