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U.S. History Chapter 18 Notes America Claims an Empire

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1 U.S. History Chapter 18 Notes America Claims an Empire
Global competition prompts the United States to expand its influence and territory engage in conflicts around the globe, and build the Panama Canal.

2 Section 1 Imperialism and America
Beginning in 1867 and continuing through the century, global competition causes the United States to expand

3 United Sates expands overseas
Fleet of 16 U.S. battleships sail around the world Showed the world that the U.S. was a power to be reckoned with Important step in expanding America's international interest The Great White Fleet

4 Reasons for American Expansion
Imperialism - policy of extending control over weaker nations - European countries practiced this in the 1700's and 1800's 1800s - Europeans divided up most of Africa & competed for China Japan joined race for China & U.S. decided to expand overseas U.S. didn't want to do this in the beginning - Once colonies ourselves - Couldn't afford a war Our attitude changed in the late 1800's for several reasons - Nationalism - U.S. united again following Civil War - People wanted to be a world power - Needed colonies to be one

5 Reasons for American Expansion
U.S developed a desire for Desire for military strength - Admiral Alfred T. Mahan urges U.S. to build up navy to compete - U.S. builds modern battleships, becomes third largest naval power

6 Reasons for American Expansion
New ideas - Charles Darwin - survival of the fittest - Social Darwinism - Americans believed that their society was superior and would spread throughout the world People argued the U.S. had duty to Christianize or civilize “inferior peoples” - Also used to support racism

7 Reasons for American Expansion
Foreign Markets - people wanted new markets for American goods - U.S. farms, factories produced more than Americans could consume - U.S. needed raw materials& new markets for goods - Foreign trade was the solution to overproduction, unemployment, & depression - Began exporting more than we were importing

8 Seward and Expansion William Seward – Served as Secretary of State under Lincoln & Johnson - Tried to gain new lands for U.S. ordered navy to occupy the Midway Islands in the Pacific Ocean - Valuable as a Fueling station to refuel ships


10 Seward and Expansion Arranged for the purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million - Had trouble convincing House to fund purchase - Alaska called “Seward’s Icebox,” “Seward’s Folly” - Alaska rich in timber, minerals, oil Arranged for the U.S. to buy the Virgin Islands from Denmark (Didn't actually occur until 1917) - Also wanted to add the Hawaiian Islands


12 The Annexation of Hawaii
1790s - U.S. merchants began stopping in Hawaii on way to China, India Early 1800's - Christian missionaries moved to Hawaii to convert the people - Yankee missionaries founded schools & churches on islands - Many of the missionaries’ descendants became wealthy sugar and pineapple planters - They controlled the government

13 The Annexation of Hawaii
Mid-1800s, American-owned sugar plantations 75% of islands’ wealth 1887, businessmen force King Kalakaua to limit vote to landowners 1887, U.S. pressures Hawaii to allow naval base at Pearl Harbor - Became refueling station

14 The Annexation of Hawaii
Queen Liliuokalani came to power - She wanted to regain control of the island - Tried to remove landowning requirement Planters called the U.S. government for help Hawaii was valuable refueling station U.S. sent marines - Marines and planters overthrew Queen

15 The Annexation of Hawaii
Set up an independent republic - Sanford Dole named president Hawaii asked to be annexed by the u.s. - Grover Cleveland didn't want to annex it - President Cleveland cannot make Dole surrender power to queen - recognized Republic of Hawaii

16 The Annexation of Hawaii
1898 – Hawaii was annexed following the Spanish American War - Congress proclaimed Hawaii a U.S. territory under President McKinley

17 Section 2 The Spanish-American War
In 1898, the United States goes to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain.

18 Rebellion against Spain
Spain's empire was crumbling - Had once controlled most of the Americas - Late 1800's - Spain had only a few colonies Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Philippines began wanting independence

19 Rebellion against Spain
Situation in Cuba interested U.S. - Cuba located 90 miles south of U.S. - American business interest had been growing (sugarcane) - Fighting caused trade with Cuba to drop

20 Rebellion against Spain
Spain sent General Valeriano Weyler to Cuba to crush the revolt - He treated the Cubans harshly - Put about 300,000 Cubans in concentration camps - Many died of starvation American press told stories about the cruelty to stir up people emotions

21 Rebellion against Spain
Two papers fighting for customers (circulation war) - The World owned by Joseph Pulitzer - Journal owned by William Randolph Hearst They wrote sensationalized writing stories to attract customers - Called yellow journalism

22 America goes to War President McKinley didn't want to go to war
- He had fought in the Civil War Public pressure forced McKinley to take action against Spain - He demanded that Spain stop its harsh treatment of Cubans - Spain sent general Weyler home but didn't stop treatment February 9, U.S. recovered a private letter written by a Spanish minister named Enrique Dupuy de Lôme - He called President McKinley weak - Spain apologized & de Lôme resigned - American public remained angry

23 America goes to War U.S.S. Maine sent to pick up U.S. citizens, protect U.S. property - The Maine exploded in Havana Harbor - U.S. blames Spain - "Remember the Maine” became war cry

24 America goes to War April 29, President McKinley declared Cuba independent The Spanish- American War began

25 Pacific War U.S. entered war to fight for Cuba's freedom
1st battle takes place half way around the world - Manila Bay in the Philippines Before war Teddy Roosevelt sent fleet of ships to Hong Kong

26 Pacific War Led by Commodore George Dewey
May 1, battle takes place - Filipinos, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, supported Dewey - Over 300 Spanish killed and defeated - Dewey became hero in U.S - Bubble gum named after him (Dewey's Chewys).

27 The War in the Caribbean
U.S. only had 28,000 men when war started - 200,000 signed up within 6 months Teddy Roosevelt picked a group of soldiers known as the "Rough Riders" - Chose a diverse group - Cowboys, N.Y. City policemen, athletes, and American Indians

28 The War in the Caribbean
They set sail for Cuba from Tampa, Florida - Had to wear wool uniforms (lightweight uniforms hadn't arrived yet) - Food spoiled in the heat - Men became sick U.S. wanted to capture the port of Santiago - Had to control San Juan Hill to do this

29 The War in the Caribbean
Rough Riders attacked and took San Juan Hill - Didn't have horses (they were left behind in Florida) - Roosevelt declared hero of attack on strategic San Juan Hill - Aug Spain signs truce

30 Treaty of Paris August 12, 1898 – Spain & U.S. signed armistice
Met in Paris to make treaty U.S. shocked Spain at the treaty signing in France - Demanded the Spain hand over Puerto Rico, the island of Guam, and the Philippines (war had been fought over Cuba) - Spain didn't have any choice Spain freed Cuba; handed Guam, Puerto Rico to U.S. & sold Philippines Treaty of Paris touched off a great debate over imperialism - McKinley tried to justify annexation of Philippines on moral grounds - Opponents gave political, moral, economic arguments against

31 Results of the War U.S. didn't grant Cuba independence immediately
- Cuba had to agree to the Platt Amendment - It gave the U.S. the right interfere in Cuban affairs when there was a threat to life, property, and individual liberty - Cuba had to allow an American naval base at Guantanamo Bay until 1999

32 Results of the War Puerto Rico became a U.S. territory
Had its own elected legislature and a governor chosen by the president 1917, Puerto Ricans made U.S. citizens; elect both houses

33 Results of the War Guam was controlled by the U.S. navy
President McKinley decided that the Philippines should become an American Colony - Philippines wanted independence - Revolted against the U.S. U.S. troops finally restored order July 4, 1946, Philippines became independent

34 Section 3 Acquiring New Lands
In the early 1900s, the United States engages in conflicts in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines.

35 Ruling Puerto Rico Not all Puerto Ricans wanted independence. Some wanted statehood, while still others hope for some measure of local self-government as an American territory. -Puerto Rico was important to the US for maintaining a US presence in the Caribbean and for protecting a future canal in Panama.

36 Ruling Puerto Rico *Foraker Act- passed in 1900, this act ended military rule and set up a civil government in Puerto Rico. -The act gave the president of the US the power to appoint Puerto Rico's governor and members of the upper house of this legislature.

37 Cuba and the US -When the US declared war against Spain in 1898; it recognized Cuba's independence from Spain. *Teller Amendment- stated that the US had no intention of taking over any part of Cuba. -US aided Cuba -- food, clothes, schools, medical research, and sanitation.

38 US and Cuba -It remained in effect for 31 years.
Cuba became a US *protectorate- a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger nation.

39 Cuban Independence? Teller Amendment (1898) Platt Amendment (1903)
Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt. Senator Orville Platt

40 Emilio Aguinaldo July 4, 1946: Philippine independence
Leader of the Filipino Uprising. July 4, 1946: Philippine independence

41 Power in the Pacific U.S. always had interest in Pacific
U.S. navy landed in Tokyo Bay - Led by Commodore Matthew Perry He carried a letter from President Millard Fillmore U.S. wanted Japan to open ports to American trade - Carried gifts - Made it clear that Japan should not refuse president's request

42 Interest in China U.S. joined other countries in competing for control of China - Saw China as vast potential market for investment & opportunity France, Britain, Japan, Russia had settlements, & spheres of influence U.S. came up with trade policy U.S. Secretary of State John Hay issued Open Door notes

43 Interest in China Open Door Policy - no single country had a monopoly on trade with China - Notes ask imperialist nations to share trading rights with U.S. - Other powers reluctantly agree

44 The Boxer Rebellion in China
Europeans dominate most large Chinese cities Chinese formed secret societies, including Boxers, to expel foreigners Boxers killed hundreds of foreigners & Chinese converts to Christianity U.S., Britain, France, Germany, Japan put down Boxer Rebellion

45 Protecting American Rights
Hay issued new Open Door notes saying U. S. would keep trade open Open Door policy reflected beliefs about U.S. economy: - Growth depended on exports - U.S. had right to keep markets open - Closing of area threatens U.S. survival

46 The Anti-Imperialist League
Several; well known Americans opposed overseas expansion - Andrew Carnegie - Mark Twain They believed that the U.S. should not deny other the right to govern themselves Their argument lost as everyone celebrated the war victory McKinley’s reelection confirmed most Americans favored imperialism

47 Section 4 America as a World Power
The Russo-Japanese War, the Panama Canal, and the Mexican Revolution add to America’s military and economic power.

48 Teddy Roosevelt and the World
Roosevelt didn’t not want Europeans to control world economy & politics Japan & Russia disputed control of Korea (Japanese-Russo War) Roosevelt negotiated Treaty of Portsmouth: - Japan received Manchuria & Korea - Roosevelt won Nobel Peace Prize U.S. & Japan continued diplomatic talks - Pledged to respect each other’s possessions

49 The Panama Canal U.S. wanted canal to cut travel time of commercial & military ships Colombia controlled the isthmus of Panama (Best Spot) U.S. bought French company’s route through Panama Negotiated with Colombia to build Panama Canal - Talks broke down

50 The Panama Canal French company agent helped organize Panamanian rebellion - U.S. gave military aid Panama gained independence U.S., Panama sign treaty U.S. paid $10 million for Canal zone

51 Constructing the Canal
Construction of canal is one of world’s greatest engineering feats - fought diseases & geographic obstacles - at height, 43,400 workers employed 5000 workers died Finished in 1914 Canal cost $352 million dollars


53 Policing the Hemisphere
Roosevelt wanted it made clear that the U.S was the leading power in the Americas - Speak softly and carry a big stick" Roosevelt reminded Europe about the Monroe Doctrine - It said that the U.S would police the western hemisphere Added the Roosevelt Corollary - added to the Monroe Doctrine - Said that if a situation arose that required international police power the U.S. would do the job

54 Policing the Hemisphere
Later presidents expanded Roosevelt's" Big Stick Diplomacy" - Encouraged U.S. companies to invest in Latin America - Promised military support

55 Policing the Hemisphere
Dollar diplomacy—U.S. guarantees foreign loans by U.S. business Latin Americans saw U.S. as bullies - Created distrust between U.S. and it Latin American neighbors

56 U.S. involvement in Latin America
Business leaders realized they could by products cheaply in Latin America and sell them in the U.S. (coffee, bananas, and copper) Bought large tracts of land - Many people lost their land and were forced to take low paying jobs

57 Woodrow Wilson’s Missionary Diplomacy
Missionary diplomacy - U.S. had moral responsibility: - would not recognize regimes that are oppressive, undemocratic A lot of U.S. investment in Mexico under dictator Porfirio Díaz, 1911, peasants & workers led by Francisco Madero overthrew Díaz (Mexican Revolution) General Victoriano Huerta took over government & Madero was murdered Wilson refused to recognize Huerta’s government

58 Intervention in Mexico
Huerta’s officers arrested U.S. sailors & quickly release them Wilson ordered Marines to occupy Veracruz Argentina, Brazil, & Chile mediated to avoid war Huerta regime falls & nationalist Venustiano Carranza became new president

59 Rebellion in Mexico Francisco “Pancho” & Villa, Emiliano Zapata opposed Carranza - Zapata wanted land reform - Villa was a fierce nationalist Wilson recognizes Carranza’s government Villa threatened reprisals - Villa’s men killed Americans

60 Chasing Villa Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing led forces to capture Villa
Carranza demanded withdrawal of U.S. troops - Wilson refuses at first U.S. faced war in Europe & wants peace on southern border (WWI) - Wilson ordered Pershing home Mexico adopted new constitution: - Government controls oil, minerals - restricted foreign investors

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