Presentation on theme: "U.S. History Chapter 18 Notes America Claims an Empire"— Presentation transcript:
1U.S. History Chapter 18 Notes America Claims an Empire Global competition prompts the United States to expand its influence and territory engage in conflicts around the globe, and build the Panama Canal.
2Section 1 Imperialism and America Beginning in 1867 and continuing through the century, global competition causes the United States to expand
3United Sates expands overseas Fleet of 16 U.S. battleships sail around the worldShowed the world that the U.S. was a power to be reckoned withImportant step in expanding America's international interestThe Great White Fleet
4Reasons for American Expansion Imperialism - policy of extending control over weaker nations- European countries practiced this in the 1700's and 1800's1800s - Europeans divided up most of Africa & competed for ChinaJapan joined race for China & U.S. decided to expand overseasU.S. didn't want to do this in the beginning- Once colonies ourselves- Couldn't afford a warOur attitude changed in the late 1800's for several reasons- Nationalism - U.S. united again following Civil War- People wanted to be a world power- Needed colonies to be one
5Reasons for American Expansion U.S developed a desire for Desire for military strength- Admiral Alfred T. Mahan urges U.S. to build up navy to compete- U.S. builds modern battleships, becomes third largest naval power
6Reasons for American Expansion New ideas - Charles Darwin - survival of the fittest- Social Darwinism - Americans believed that their society was superior and would spread throughout the worldPeople argued the U.S. had duty to Christianize or civilize “inferior peoples”- Also used to support racism
7Reasons for American Expansion Foreign Markets - people wanted new markets for American goods- U.S. farms, factories produced more than Americans could consume- U.S. needed raw materials& new markets for goods- Foreign trade was the solution to overproduction, unemployment, & depression- Began exporting more than we were importing
8Seward and ExpansionWilliam Seward – Served as Secretary of State under Lincoln & Johnson- Tried to gain new lands for U.S.ordered navy to occupy the Midway Islands in the Pacific Ocean- Valuable as a Fueling station to refuel ships
10Seward and ExpansionArranged for the purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million- Had trouble convincing House to fund purchase- Alaska called “Seward’s Icebox,” “Seward’s Folly”- Alaska rich in timber, minerals, oilArranged for the U.S. to buy the Virgin Islands from Denmark(Didn't actually occur until 1917)- Also wanted to add the Hawaiian Islands
12The Annexation of Hawaii 1790s - U.S. merchants began stopping in Hawaii on way to China, IndiaEarly 1800's - Christian missionaries moved to Hawaii to convert the people- Yankee missionaries founded schools & churches on islands- Many of the missionaries’ descendants became wealthy sugar and pineapple planters- They controlled the government
13The Annexation of Hawaii Mid-1800s, American-owned sugar plantations 75% of islands’ wealth1887, businessmen force King Kalakaua to limit vote to landowners1887, U.S. pressures Hawaii to allow naval base at Pearl Harbor- Became refueling station
14The Annexation of Hawaii Queen Liliuokalani came to power- She wanted to regain control of the island- Tried to remove landowning requirementPlanters called the U.S. government for helpHawaii was valuable refueling stationU.S. sent marines- Marines and planters overthrew Queen
15The Annexation of Hawaii Set up an independent republic- Sanford Dole named presidentHawaii asked to be annexed by the u.s.- Grover Cleveland didn't want to annex it- President Cleveland cannot make Dole surrender power to queen- recognized Republic of Hawaii
16The Annexation of Hawaii 1898 – Hawaii was annexed following the Spanish American War- Congress proclaimed Hawaii a U.S. territory under President McKinley
17Section 2 The Spanish-American War In 1898, the United States goes to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain.
18Rebellion against Spain Spain's empire was crumbling- Had once controlled most of the Americas- Late 1800's - Spain had only a few coloniesCuba, Puerto Rico, and Philippines began wanting independence
19Rebellion against Spain Situation in Cuba interested U.S.- Cuba located 90 miles south of U.S.- American business interest had been growing (sugarcane)- Fighting caused trade with Cuba to drop
20Rebellion against Spain Spain sent General Valeriano Weyler to Cuba to crush the revolt- He treated the Cubans harshly- Put about 300,000 Cubans in concentration camps- Many died of starvationAmerican press told stories about the cruelty to stir up people emotions
21Rebellion against Spain Two papers fighting for customers (circulation war)- The World owned by Joseph Pulitzer- Journal owned by William Randolph HearstThey wrote sensationalized writing stories to attract customers- Called yellow journalism
22America goes to War President McKinley didn't want to go to war - He had fought in the Civil WarPublic pressure forced McKinley to take action against Spain- He demanded that Spain stop its harsh treatment of Cubans- Spain sent general Weyler home but didn't stop treatmentFebruary 9, U.S. recovered a private letter written by a Spanish minister named Enrique Dupuy de Lôme- He called President McKinley weak- Spain apologized & de Lôme resigned- American public remained angry
23America goes to WarU.S.S. Maine sent to pick up U.S. citizens, protect U.S. property- The Maine exploded in Havana Harbor- U.S. blames Spain- "Remember the Maine” became war cry
24America goes to WarApril 29, President McKinley declared Cuba independentThe Spanish- American War began
25Pacific War U.S. entered war to fight for Cuba's freedom 1st battle takes place half way around the world- Manila Bay in the PhilippinesBefore war Teddy Roosevelt sent fleet of ships to Hong Kong
26Pacific War Led by Commodore George Dewey May 1, battle takes place- Filipinos, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, supported Dewey- Over 300 Spanish killed and defeated- Dewey became hero in U.S- Bubble gum named after him (Dewey's Chewys).
27The War in the Caribbean U.S. only had 28,000 men when war started- 200,000 signed up within 6 monthsTeddy Roosevelt picked a group of soldiers known as the "Rough Riders"- Chose a diverse group- Cowboys, N.Y. City policemen, athletes, and American Indians
28The War in the Caribbean They set sail for Cuba from Tampa, Florida- Had to wear wool uniforms (lightweight uniforms hadn't arrived yet)- Food spoiled in the heat- Men became sickU.S. wanted to capture the port of Santiago- Had to control San Juan Hill to do this
29The War in the Caribbean Rough Riders attacked and took San Juan Hill- Didn't have horses (they were left behind in Florida)- Roosevelt declared hero of attack on strategic San Juan Hill- Aug Spain signs truce
30Treaty of Paris August 12, 1898 – Spain & U.S. signed armistice Met in Paris to make treatyU.S. shocked Spain at the treaty signing in France- Demanded the Spain hand over Puerto Rico, the island of Guam, and the Philippines (war had been fought over Cuba)- Spain didn't have any choiceSpain freed Cuba; handed Guam, Puerto Rico to U.S. & sold PhilippinesTreaty of Paris touched off a great debate over imperialism- McKinley tried to justify annexation of Philippines on moral grounds- Opponents gave political, moral, economic arguments against
31Results of the War U.S. didn't grant Cuba independence immediately - Cuba had to agree to the Platt Amendment- It gave the U.S. the right interfere in Cuban affairs when there was a threat to life, property, and individual liberty- Cuba had to allow an American naval base at Guantanamo Bay until 1999
32Results of the War Puerto Rico became a U.S. territory Had its own elected legislature and a governor chosen by the president1917, Puerto Ricans made U.S. citizens; elect both houses
33Results of the War Guam was controlled by the U.S. navy President McKinley decided that the Philippines should become an American Colony- Philippines wanted independence- Revolted against the U.S.U.S. troops finally restored orderJuly 4, 1946, Philippines became independent
34Section 3 Acquiring New Lands In the early 1900s, the United States engages in conflicts in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines.
35Ruling Puerto RicoNot all Puerto Ricans wanted independence. Some wanted statehood, while still others hope for some measure of local self-government as an American territory.-Puerto Rico was important to the US for maintaining a US presence in the Caribbean and for protecting a future canal in Panama.
36Ruling Puerto Rico*Foraker Act- passed in 1900, this act ended military rule and set up a civil government in Puerto Rico.-The act gave the president of the US the power to appoint Puerto Rico's governor and members of the upper house of this legislature.
37Cuba and the US-When the US declared war against Spain in 1898; it recognized Cuba's independence from Spain.*Teller Amendment- stated that the US had no intention of taking over any part of Cuba.-US aided Cuba -- food, clothes, schools, medical research, and sanitation.
38US and Cuba -It remained in effect for 31 years. Cuba became a US *protectorate- a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger nation.
39Cuban Independence? Teller Amendment (1898) Platt Amendment (1903) Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence.The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt.Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station.Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.Senator Orville Platt
40Emilio Aguinaldo July 4, 1946: Philippine independence Leader of the Filipino Uprising.July 4, 1946: Philippine independence
41Power in the Pacific U.S. always had interest in Pacific U.S. navy landed in Tokyo Bay- Led by Commodore Matthew PerryHe carried a letter from President Millard FillmoreU.S. wanted Japan to open ports to American trade- Carried gifts- Made it clear that Japan should not refuse president's request
42Interest in ChinaU.S. joined other countries in competing for control of China- Saw China as vast potential market for investment & opportunityFrance, Britain, Japan, Russia had settlements, & spheres of influenceU.S. came up with trade policyU.S. Secretary of State John Hay issued Open Door notes
43Interest in ChinaOpen Door Policy - no single country had a monopoly on trade with China- Notes ask imperialist nations to share trading rights with U.S.- Other powers reluctantly agree
44The Boxer Rebellion in China Europeans dominate most large Chinese citiesChinese formed secret societies, including Boxers, to expel foreignersBoxers killed hundreds of foreigners & Chinese converts to ChristianityU.S., Britain, France, Germany, Japan put down Boxer Rebellion
45Protecting American Rights Hay issued new Open Door notes saying U. S. would keep trade openOpen Door policy reflected beliefs about U.S. economy:- Growth depended on exports- U.S. had right to keep markets open- Closing of area threatens U.S. survival
46The Anti-Imperialist League Several; well known Americans opposed overseas expansion- Andrew Carnegie- Mark TwainThey believed that the U.S. should not deny other the right to govern themselvesTheir argument lost as everyone celebrated the war victoryMcKinley’s reelection confirmed most Americans favored imperialism
47Section 4 America as a World Power The Russo-Japanese War, the Panama Canal, and the Mexican Revolution add to America’s military and economic power.
48Teddy Roosevelt and the World Roosevelt didn’t not want Europeans to control world economy & politicsJapan & Russia disputed control of Korea (Japanese-Russo War)Roosevelt negotiated Treaty of Portsmouth:- Japan received Manchuria & Korea- Roosevelt won Nobel Peace PrizeU.S. & Japan continued diplomatic talks- Pledged to respect each other’s possessions
49The Panama CanalU.S. wanted canal to cut travel time of commercial & military shipsColombia controlled the isthmus of Panama (Best Spot)U.S. bought French company’s route through PanamaNegotiated with Colombia to build Panama Canal- Talks broke down
50The Panama CanalFrench company agent helped organize Panamanian rebellion- U.S. gave military aidPanama gained independenceU.S., Panama sign treatyU.S. paid $10 million for Canal zone
51Constructing the Canal Construction of canal is one of world’s greatest engineering feats- fought diseases & geographic obstacles- at height, 43,400 workers employed5000 workers diedFinished in 1914Canal cost $352 million dollars
53Policing the Hemisphere Roosevelt wanted it made clear that the U.S was the leading power in the Americas- Speak softly and carry a big stick"Roosevelt reminded Europe about the Monroe Doctrine- It said that the U.S would police the western hemisphereAdded the Roosevelt Corollary - added to the Monroe Doctrine- Said that if a situation arose that required international police power the U.S. would do the job
54Policing the Hemisphere Later presidents expanded Roosevelt's" Big Stick Diplomacy"- Encouraged U.S. companies to invest in Latin America- Promised military support
55Policing the Hemisphere Dollar diplomacy—U.S. guarantees foreign loans by U.S. businessLatin Americans saw U.S. as bullies- Created distrust between U.S. and it Latin American neighbors
56U.S. involvement in Latin America Business leaders realized they could by products cheaply in Latin America and sell them in the U.S. (coffee, bananas, and copper)Bought large tracts of land- Many people lost their land and were forced to take low paying jobs
57Woodrow Wilson’s Missionary Diplomacy Missionary diplomacy - U.S. had moral responsibility:- would not recognize regimes that are oppressive, undemocraticA lot of U.S. investment in Mexico under dictator Porfirio Díaz,1911, peasants & workers led by Francisco Madero overthrew Díaz (Mexican Revolution)General Victoriano Huerta took over government & Madero was murderedWilson refused to recognize Huerta’s government
58Intervention in Mexico Huerta’s officers arrested U.S. sailors & quickly release themWilson ordered Marines to occupy VeracruzArgentina, Brazil, & Chile mediated to avoid warHuerta regime falls & nationalist Venustiano Carranza became new president
59Rebellion in MexicoFrancisco “Pancho” & Villa, Emiliano Zapata opposed Carranza- Zapata wanted land reform- Villa was a fierce nationalistWilson recognizes Carranza’s governmentVilla threatened reprisals- Villa’s men killed Americans
60Chasing Villa Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing led forces to capture Villa Carranza demanded withdrawal of U.S. troops- Wilson refuses at firstU.S. faced war in Europe & wants peace on southern border (WWI)- Wilson ordered Pershing homeMexico adopted new constitution:- Government controls oil, minerals- restricted foreign investors