4Terms/DefinitionsMercantilism – a country should try to obtain and keep as much bullion, or gold and silver, as possibleBalance of Trade – the difference in value between imports and exportsDuty – a tax
5Con’t….Salutary neglect – Great Britain’s policy of not interfering in the American colonies politics and economy as long as such neglect served British economic interestsStaple crop – crops that are constantly in demandTriangular Trade – trade between the America’s, Europe, and Africa
6Why did England pay little attention to the colonies between 1600 and mid 1700’s 2 Reasons:The Civil War that raged in Great BritainEngland was getting what it wanted out of the colonies, and it lacked the power to control the colonies tightly b/c they were so far away
7Why did England prize their colonies? 1.) colonies produced large amounts of food and raw materials2.) colonists were buying large amounts of English goods
8How did staple crops affect the growth and settlement of the Southern Colonies? Staple crops required a large amount of landThe land needed more manual labor, therefore, slavery increased greatlyThe South as a result became land full of plantations along rivers and coastlines, with only a few towns and a small group of merchants
10Terms/DefinitionsGentry – men and women wealthy enough to hire people to work for themApprentice – people placed under a legal contract to work for another person in exchange for learning a trade.Almanac – a book containing information such as calendars, weather predictions, advice, wise sayings, etc.
11Con’t…Indigo – a type of plant used in making a blue dye for cloth. It was one of the major staple crop of South CarolinaSelf-sufficient – to be able to make everything that is needed to maintain your life
12Why do you think the role of an apprentice is so important? ans: Apprentices contributed to the expansion of the economy because their training involved assisting artisans in the manufacture of fine glassware, furniture, and other high quality items for purchase by the gentry
13How were children educated in the colonies? Ans: Some children were educated at home. In the New England colonies, boys could attend public schools, while girls were educated at home by their mothers. In the Southern Colonies, plantation owners often hired private instructors to teach their children
14Colonial Education con’t… To show the new found importance on an education for children, Massachusetts passed a law in 1647 that stated any town having more than 50 families had to have either a school or a schoolmaster to teach children.Higher education was primarily for teaching ministers and lawyers. Most people didn’t go beyond basic schoolingThere were only 3 colleges up until the 1740’s: William and Mary, Harvard, and Yale
15Why did everyone in the average colonial household have to work? Ans: because a great deal of labor was usually required to maintain the household by producing food and goodsIs there a link between this necessity and slavery?If you are a wealthy planter, would your children have to work? If yes, why? If no, who would in their place?
16The nature of workIn the 1700’s, life was better for a white colonist in the America’s than it was in EuropeFor this reason, among others, the population steadily grew in the colonies as peopleColonists ate better, lived better and longer, as well as had large numbers of children to help with the farm life/workAll family members had a hand in the success of the household, and all had to pull their own weightThe basic goal of the household is to be self-sufficient
17Triangular Trade The triangle of trade The Transatlantic Slave Trade consisted of three journeys:The outward passage from Europe to Africa carrying manufactured goods.The middle passage from Africa to the Americas or the Caribbean carrying African captives and other 'commodities’.The homeward passage carrying sugar, tobacco, rum, rice, cotton and other goods back to Europe.
18African Americans in the Colonies Middle Passage – one leg of the triangular trade routes between the America’s, Europe, and Africa. This leg was the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean
19Middle PassageThe Middle Passage was a breeding ground for diseases due to the long length of the trip, as well as the tight quarters, heat, exhaustion, and the abundance of human waste (no sanitation)Anywhere from % of the Africans would become sick and/or die during their trip through the Middle Passage
20African American’s in the Colonies African American population:YearNew EnglandMiddle ColoniesSouthern Colonies16909502,47213,30717001,6803,66122,47617102,5856,21836,06317203,95610,82554,05817306,11811,68373,22017408,54116,452125,031175010,98220,736204,702
21Rice plantationsIn colonies such as South Carolina and Georgia, rice plantations prospered.Rice is most efficiently grown on very large tracts of land, and as a result, there were a great number of plantations that had over 100 slaves on itDue to the large amount of Africans, they were able to preserve some of their culture through their constant interaction and the large number of people
22Free Blacks Slave laws discouraged people from being free Some laws either prevented their freedom or forced them to leave after their freedomMost free blacks still had to work on the fields, as it was one of their only skills and the only work availableMany free blacks were worse off than enslaved blacks economically because they had no link to white households, and they faced limited rights compared to the other free people, whites
23African American Laws Slave laws varied between regions These laws were constantly revised to further control slavesSlaves would need a pass to move about off of the grounds of the plantationPunishments including whipping, banishment to the West Indies, and deathLaws that restricted the movement of slaves made organizing a rebellion very difficult
24Stono Rebellion 1739 Other Rebellions Several dozen slaves near Charleston, SC, killed more than 20 whitesThe slaves burned the armory and began marching towards Spanish Florida, where a small colony of runaway slaves livedArmed planters captured and killed all of the rebel slavesNYC passed strict laws to try to prevent rebellionsAfter a 1741 revolt in NYC, 13 African were burned alive as punishmentThere were over 50 documented rebellions b/t 1740 and 1800, and countless others that were not documentedWhat does that tell you about the treatment of slaves and their thirst for freedom?
25Slave resistance, contMost slaves opposed slavery and resisted through individual actions: pretending to misunderstand orders, faking illnesses, running away, etcAlthough these actions didn’t give slaves freedom, it gave them personal satisfaction to resist, as well as giving them a degree of control over their own lives (even if for a short time)
26Emerging TensionsBy the mid 1700’s, population was increasing rapidly, almost doubling over a 25 year periodImmigrant – people who enter a new country to settleMigrate - movementDue to increased populations, people began to migrate and settle area’s farther from the shore ( more inland, towards the Appalachian Mountains)Some of the land that was being settled belonged to Native Americans (who would have guessed!), and as a result tensions grew.
27Tensions EmergeFrench settlers and Native Americans increasingly came into contact with each other as the settlers migrated westwardAs settlers moved to land already occupied by Native Americans, those Native Americans were forced to relocate to other areas that already settled by other Native Americans
28Tensions EmergeThe new wave of English settlers alarmed the French and Native AmericansThe British were trying to expand by building new trading postsThe French responded by building trading posts themselves, including one in Erie, PAThe French attacked a British post nearby Erie, PA, and killed those defending the post
29Tensions EmergeIt was clear by the 1750’s that there was an explosive relationship between VA and PA vs. the French and IndiansThe area of contention was the forks of the Ohio River, where the Allegheny and Monogahela rivers meet to form the Ohio R.This area was coveted by all involved and was worth fighting forThese tensions set the stage for fighting in the near future
30Religious TensionsAlthough many people came to the colonies to escape religious persecution and for religious freedom in general, that did not stop religious tensions from occurringThere was an outcry to awake the colonists to the importance of religion
31The Great Awakening This was a revival of religious At this time, many ministers believed that the colonists had fallen away from their faithThe Great Awakening was a series of revivals in an attempt to renew religious enthusiasm and commitmentMany ministers used powerful speaking skills to lead people to believe that any one can have an individual relationship with God
32Great Awakening, con’t… Itinerant – travelingMany preachers went from town to town preaching these idea’s, and these people were said to be ‘itinerant preachers’These ministers preached the following:Faith and sincerity, rather than education or wealth, were the major requirements needed to read the Gospel
33The Great AwakeningAs a result of the Great Awakening, many churches reorganizedBaptists in New EnglandMethodists in the SouthThe appeal of these two particular churches lay in their powerful, emotional ceremonies and their celebration of ordinary people