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Social Determinants of Health Social Determinants of Equity and The Impacts of Racism on the Health of our Nation.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Determinants of Health Social Determinants of Equity and The Impacts of Racism on the Health of our Nation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Determinants of Health Social Determinants of Equity and The Impacts of Racism on the Health of our Nation

2 Camara Phyllis Jones, MD, MPH, PhD Research Director on Social Determinants of Health and Equity Emerging Investigations and Analytic Methods Branch Division of Adult and Community Health National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Coordinating Center for Health Promotion Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The views expressed in this presentation are those of the author, and do not necessarily represent the policies of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

3 Levels of health intervention

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16 Medical care and tertiary prevention Safety net programs and secondary prevention Primary preventionAddressing the social determinants of health

17 But how do disparities arise? Differences in the quality of care received within the health care system Differences in access to health care, including preventive and curative services Differences in life opportunities, exposures, and stresses that result in differences in underlying health status

18 Through inequities How do disparities arise?

19 Through inequities How do disparities arise? Exposures and opportunities

20 Through inequities How do disparities arise? Access to care Exposures and opportunities

21 Through inequities How do disparities arise? Access to care Quality of care Exposures and opportunities

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28 Differences in access to care Differences in exposures and opportunities Differences in quality of care (ambulance slow or goes the wrong way)

29 Addressing the social determinants of equity: Why are there differences in resources along the cliff face? Why are there differences in who is found at different parts of the cliff?

30 Determinants of health Individual behaviors

31 Determinants of health Social determinants of health (contexts) Individual behaviors

32 Social determinants of health (contexts) Individual behaviors Determinants of health and illness that are outside of the individual Beyond genetic predispositions Beyond individual behaviors Determinants of health

33 Social determinants of health (contexts) Individual behaviors Determinants of health and illness that are outside of the individual Beyond genetic predispositions Beyond individual behaviors The contexts in which individual behaviors arise Determinants of health

34 Social determinants of health (contexts) Individual behaviors Individual resources Education, occupation, income, wealth Determinants of health

35 Social determinants of health (contexts) Individual behaviors Individual resources Education, occupation, income, wealth Neighborhood resources Housing, food choices, public safety, transportation, parks and recreation, political clout Determinants of health

36 Social determinants of health (contexts) Individual behaviors Individual resources Education, occupation, income, wealth Neighborhood resources Housing, food choices, public safety, transportation, parks and recreation, political clout Hazards and toxic exposures Pesticides, lead, reservoirs of infection Determinants of health

37 Social determinants of health (contexts) Individual behaviors Individual resources Education, occupation, income, wealth Neighborhood resources Housing, food choices, public safety, transportation, parks and recreation, political clout Hazards and toxic exposures Pesticides, lead, reservoirs of infection Opportunity structures Schools, jobs, justice Determinants of health

38 Societal determinants of context Social determinants of health (contexts) Individual behaviors

39 Societal determinants of context Social determinants of health (contexts) Individual behaviors Determine the range of observed contexts Determinants of health

40 Societal determinants of context Social determinants of health (contexts) Individual behaviors Determine the distribution of different populations into those contexts Determine the range of observed contexts Determinants of health

41 Societal determinants of context Social determinants of health (contexts) Individual behaviors Determine the distribution of different populations into those contexts Determine the range of observed contexts Include capitalism, racism, and other systems of power Determinants of health

42 Societal determinants of context Social determinants of health (contexts) Individual behaviors Determine the distribution of different populations into those contexts Determine the range of observed contexts Include capitalism, racism, and other systems of power Determinants of health The social determinants of equity

43 Addressing the social determinants of health Involves the medical care and public health systems, but clearly extends beyond these Requires collaboration with multiple sectors outside of health, including education, housing, labor, justice, transportation, agriculture, and environment

44 Addressing the social determinants of equity Involves monitoring for inequities in exposures and opportunities, as well as for disparities in outcomes Involves examination of structures, policies, practices, norms, and values to answer, “How are these inequities being maintained?” Requires intervention on societal structures and attention to systems of power

45 We need to do both Address the social determinants of health, including poverty, in order to achieve large and sustained improvements in health outcomes Address the social determinants of equity, including racism, in order to achieve social justice and eliminate health disparities

46 Levels of racism Institutionalized Personally-mediated Internalized

47 Institutionalized racism Differential access to the goods, services, and opportunities of society, by “race” Examples –Housing, education, employment, income –Medical facilities –Clean environment –Information, resources, voice Explains the association between SES and “race”

48 Personally-mediated racism Differential assumptions about the abilities, motives, and intents of others, by “race” Prejudice and discrimination Examples –Police brutality –Physician disrespect –Shopkeeper vigilance –Waiter indifference –Teacher devaluation

49 Internalized racism Acceptance by the stigmatized “races” of negative messages about our own abilities and intrinsic worth Examples –Self-devaluation –White man’s ice is colder –Resignation, helplessness, hopelessness Accepting limitations to our full humanity

50 Levels of Racism: A Gardener’s Tale

51 Who is the gardener? Power to decide Power to act Control of resources Dangerous when Allied with one group Not concerned with equity

52 Our tasks Put racism on the agenda –Name racism as a force determining the distribution of other social determinants of health –Routinely monitor for differential exposures, opportunities, and outcomes by “race”

53 Our tasks Ask, “How is racism operating here?” –Identify mechanisms in structures, policies, practices, and norms –Attend to both what exists and what is lacking

54 Our tasks Organize and strategize to act –Join in grassroots organizing around the conditions of people’s lives –Identify the structural factors creating and perpetuating those conditions –Link with similar efforts across the country and around the world

55 Camara Phyllis Jones, MD, MPH, PhD 4770 Buford Highway NE Mailstop K-67 Atlanta, Georgia (770) phone (770) fax


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