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Characteristics of Living Things and Classification What makes something living? How do we organize living things?

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Presentation on theme: "Characteristics of Living Things and Classification What makes something living? How do we organize living things?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Characteristics of Living Things and Classification What makes something living? How do we organize living things?

3 Organization of Living Things ORGANISM BODY SYSTEMS ORGANS TISSUES CELLS ORGANELLES MOLECULESMULTICELLULARORGANISMS UNICELLULARORGANISMS

4 4 Characteristics of ALL Living Things 1. Living things are made of CELLS that contain DNA 2. Living things have a METABOLISM to help them use energy to live, grow, and develop 3. Living things maintain HOMEOSTASIS A stable internal environment A stable internal environment 4. Living things REPRODUCE

5 Similarities and Differences Among Living Things Living things go about the 4 characteristics in similar AND different ways 8 Life processes that are similar and different among living things: Obtaining nutrients Transport of materials throughout organism Breaking down nutrients to get energy (cellular respiration) Combining simple substances to make more complex substances (synthesis) Growth Removal of waste products (Excretion) Responding to internal and external stimuli (Sensitivity) Reproducing

6 Helping Vocabulary Number of cells: Number of cells: Multicellular: Multicellular: Made of many cells Made of many cells Unicellular: Unicellular: Made of one cell Made of one cell Nucleus- Yes or No? Nucleus- Yes or No? Eukaryote: Eukaryote: Cells contain a nucleus Cells contain a nucleus Prokaryote: Prokaryote: Cells lack a nucleus Cells lack a nucleus Mode of nutrition: Mode of nutrition: Heterotroph: Heterotroph: Need to obtain food Need to obtain food Autotroph: Autotroph: Can make own food Can make own food

7 Just to get you thinking! J0&feature=related J0&feature=related J0&feature=related J0&feature=related

8 The 6 Kingdoms Similarities and Differences in life processes has grouped orgs into 6 different kingdoms Similarities and Differences in life processes has grouped orgs into 6 different kingdomsAnimaliaFungiPlantaeProtistaMonera (now Archebacteria and Eubacteria) UNICELLULAR MULTICELLULAR EUKARYOTIC PROKARYOTIC

9 Obtaining Nutrients Heterotroph Heterotroph Gets nutrients from the environment Gets nutrients from the environment Kingdoms: Kingdoms: Animalia, Fungi, Some Protista and Monera Animalia, Fungi, Some Protista and Monera Autotroph Autotroph Makes own food Makes own food Kingdoms: Kingdoms: Plantae and some Protists (photosynthesis), some Bacteria (chemosynthesis) Plantae and some Protists (photosynthesis), some Bacteria (chemosynthesis)

10 Transport of materials Unicellular Orgs: Unicellular Orgs: Transport within cytoplasm Transport within cytoplasm Kingdoms: Kingdoms: Protista, Monera Protista, Monera Multicellular Orgs: Multicellular Orgs: Transport within liquids and tubes Transport within liquids and tubes Kingdoms: Kingdoms: Animalia, Plantae, Fungi Animalia, Plantae, Fungi

11 Reproduction Asexual: Asexual: One parent One parent Offspring genetically identical (clones) Offspring genetically identical (clones) Kingdoms: Kingdoms: Some Fungi, Protista, Monera Some Fungi, Protista, Monera Sexual: Sexual: Two parents Two parents Offspring genetically different from parents Offspring genetically different from parents Kingdoms: Kingdoms: Some Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Some Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

12 Classification of Living Things Why classify organisms? Why classify organisms? For easy identification For easy identification For evolutionary comparison of organisms For evolutionary comparison of organisms Organisms are grouped into large categories based on similarities Organisms are grouped into large categories based on similarities Once in a group, organisms are separated based on differences Once in a group, organisms are separated based on differences

13 Classification of Living Things 5 Kingdoms Phyla (s. Phylum) ClassOrderFamilyGenusspecies DIVIDED INTO # OF ORGANISMS DECREASES DIFFERENCES AMONG ORGS INCREASES

14 Acronym to help remember! King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti

15 Classification of Humans KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata Has backbone Has backbone CLASS: Mammalia Females have mammary glands Females have mammary glands ORDER: Primates Larger brain size Larger brain size FAMILY: Hominidae GENUS: Homo SPECIES: sapiens

16 Scientific Naming Scientific name = Genus + species Scientific name = Genus + species species is not capitalized species is not capitalized Always italicized or underlined Always italicized or underlined Ex. Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens Ex. Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens Abbreviation: Abbreviation: First letter of Genus, followed by species First letter of Genus, followed by species Ex. H. sapiens Ex. H. sapiens


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