Presentation on theme: " For hundreds of years people have been trying to classify the species on our planet Earth There are potentially hundreds of thousands new species."— Presentation transcript:
For hundreds of years people have been trying to classify the species on our planet Earth There are potentially hundreds of thousands new species still waiting to be discovered With the discovery of new species classification of organisms is constantly being modified The goal is to track evolution and determine which organisms share common ancestors
A simple system of naming organisms allows anyone in the world to discuss the same creature regardless of its common name For example....
But, Carolus Linnaeus calls him.... Melanoplus femurrubrum http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/68/Carl_von_Linné.jpg
Linnaeus classified organisms according to their structural similarities: this is called TAXONOMY Each group to which Linnaeus assigned organisms is called a TAXA (singular is TAXON) Modern taxonomy groups based on their evolutionary relatedness: this is called PHYLOGENY Organisms share common ancestry if they show similar stages of embryological development and anatomical structures.
The 18 th century Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus simplified the system of naming and classifying organisms The system, known as binomial nomenclature is still in use today! What are the two parts?! Let’s find out...... http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/68/Carl_von_Linné.jpg
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Homonidae Homo sapiens
Note that the first name describes its similarity to other organisms while the second describes its uniqueness
The taxon “species” is the smallest group and it contains only a single type of organism. The organisms in a species are most like one another—except for sexual or growth stage differences, the individuals of a species have the same body or physiological morphology.
Organisms in the same species can interbreed to produce viable offspring.
Classifying Kingdoms Nutrition Heterotrophic -consumes living or dead organisms to obtain energy Autotrophic -uses sun’s energy -makes own food # of cells Unicellular -one cell Multicellular -more than one cell Reproduction Asexual -offspring produced from a single parent (genetically identical to parent Sexual -production of offspring from fusion of 2 sex cells (offspring differ from parents)
Classifying Kingdoms Habitat -where does the organism live? Cell Type ProkaryoticEukaryotic -circular chromosome -no membrane bound organelles (e.g. no true nucleus) -very small (less than 2 um) -reproduce by binary fission -double stranded chromosomes in nucleus -membrane bound organelles -larger (10-100 um) -reproduce by mitosis or meiosis