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Rhetorical Purpose Questions Official Guide –

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2 Rhetorical Purpose Questions Official Guide –

3 1000 ……





8 The author discusses X in P2 in order to... Why does the author mention X? The author uses X as an example of... Which of the following best describes the relationship between paragraph 2 and paragraph 3 What function does paragraph 3 serve in the organization of the passage as a whole?

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11 6. Which of the following best describes the relationship between paragraph 2 and paragraph 3? Paragraph 2 puts forward several scientific claims, one of which is rejected in paragraph 3. Paragraph 2 poses several questions, and paragraph 3 offers a possible answer to one of them. Paragraph 2 presents outdated traditional views, while paragraph 3 presents the current scientific conclusions. Paragraph 2 introduces a generalization that is illustrated by specific examples in paragraph 3.

12 2 3 Paragraph 2: Scientists have asked important questions about this explosion for more than a century. Why did it occur so late in the history of Earth? The origin of multicellular forms of life seems a relatively simple step compared to the origin of life itself. Why does the fossil record not document the series of evolutionary changes during the evolution of animals? Why did animal life evolve so quickly? Paleontologists continue to search the fossil record for answers to these questions. Paragraph 3: One interpretation regarding the absence of fossils during this important 100-million-year period is that early animals were soft bodied and simply did not fossilize. Fossilization of soft-bodied animals is less likely than fossilization of hard-bodied animals, but it does occur. Conditions that promote fossilization of soft-bodied animals include very rapid covering by sediments that create an environment that discourages decomposition. In fact, fossil beds containing soft-bodied animals have been known for many years.

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15 ~ 6. What function does paragraph 3 serve in the organization of the passage as a whole? It contrasts the development of iron technology in West Asia and West Africa. It discusses a non-agricultural contribution to Africa from Asia. It introduces evidence that a knowledge of copper working reached Africa and Europe at the same time. It compares the rates at which iron technology developed in different parts of Africa.

16 Paragraph 2: Livestock also came from outside Africa. Cattle were introduced from Asia, as probably were domestic sheep and goats. Horses were apparently introduced by the Hyksos invaders of Egypt ( B.C.) and then spread across the Sudan to West Africa.…… Paragraph 3: Iron came from West Asia, although its routes of diffusion were somewhat different than those of agriculture. Most of Africa presents a curious case in which societies moved directly from a technology of stone to iron without passing through the intermediate stage of copper or bronze metallurgy, although some early copper-working sites have been found in West Africa……

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19 9. In paragraph 5, why does the author provide the information that A fifteen-speed racing bicycle is more likely to break down than a childs tricycle? To illustrate a general principle about the stability of systems by using an everyday example To demonstrate that an understanding of stability in ecosystems can be applied to help understand stability in other situations To make a comparison that supports the claim that, in general, stability increases with diversity To provide an example that contradicts mathematical models of ecosystems

20 A more complicated system is, in general, more likely than a simple system to break down. A fifteen-speed racing bicycle is more likely to break down than a childs tricycle.

21 So easy

22 ~ 5. The author tells the story of the explorers Lewis and Clark in paragraph 3 in order to illustrate which of the following points? The number of deer within the Puget Sound region has varied over time. Most of the explorers who came to the Puget Sound area were primarily interested in hunting game. There was more game for hunting in the East of the United States than in the West. Individual explorers were not as successful at locating games as were the trading companies.

23 Paragraph 3: The numbers of deer have fluctuated markedly since the entry of Europeans into Puget Sound country. The early explorers and settlers told of abundant deer in the early 1800s and yet almost in the same breath bemoaned the lack of this succulent game animal. Famous explorers of the north American frontier, Lewis and Clark had experienced great difficulty finding game west of the Rockies and not until the second of December did they kill their first elk.

24 TPO - The Arrival of Plant Life in Hawaii Why does the author mention a nut, a peach, and a cherry? –To indicate that some seeds are less likely to survive than others –To point out that many angiosperms can be eaten –To provide examples of blooming plants –To illustrate the variety of coverings among angiosperm seeds Rhetorical Purpose Questions

25 One type of seed-bearing plant, the angiosperm, includes all forms of blooming vegetation. In the angiosperm the seeds are wrapped in an additional layer of covering. Some of these coats are hard–like the shell of a nut–for extra protection. Some are soft and tempting, like a peach or a cherry. In some angiosperms the seeds are equipped with gossamer wings, like the dandelion and milkweed seeds. These new characteristics offered better ways for the seed to move to new habitats. They could travel through the air, float in water, and lie dormant for many months.

26 Rhetorical Purpose Questions Powering the Industrial Revolution Which of the following best describes the relation of paragraph 2 to paragraph 1? Paragraph 2 shows how the problem discussed in paragraph 1 arose. Paragraph 2 explains how the problem presented in paragraph 1 came to be solved. Paragraph 2 provides a more technical discussion of the problem introduced in paragraph 1. Paragraph 2 shows why the problem discussed in paragraph 1 was especially important to solve.

27 and although waterpower abounded in Lancashire and Scotland and ran grain mills as well as textile mills, it had one great disadvantage: streams flowed where nature intended them to, and water-driven factories had to be located on their banks whether or not the location was desirable for other reasons. Furthermore, even the most reliable waterpower varied with the seasons and disappeared in a drought. The new age of machinery, in short, could not have been born without a new source of both movable and constant power.

28 The source had long been known but not exploited. Early in the eighteenth century, a pump had come into use in which expanding steam raised a piston in a cylinder, and atmospheric pressure brought it down again when the steam condensed inside the cylinder to form a vacuum. This atmospheric engine, invented by Thomas Savery and vastly improved by his partner, Thomas Newcomen, embodied revolutionary principles, but it was so slow and wasteful of fuel that it could not be employed outside the coal mines for which it had been designed.

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