2In the 1300s, a new way of understanding the world, based on ancient Greek and Roman values, started.This new way of understanding was called humanism. Humanists believed that humans were important. They wanted a balance of religion and reason. Their new ideas said that men could be active in their cities and do great things.
3Ancient Works Become Popular Italians began to study early Greek and Roman works. The Crusades opened trade with the Middle East. Italians learned about Greek and Roman works from the Arabs. When the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453, many Byzantine scholars moved to Venice and Florence.
4One famous scholar and poet was Francesco Petrarch One famous scholar and poet was Francesco Petrarch. He studied Roman writers like Cicero. He also wrote about the lives of famous Romans.Petrarch told Europeans to look for Latin writings in monasteries. New libraries were built to hold these writings.Italians also studied old buildings and statues. Workers cleaned up broken columns and statues. Artists studied parts of these statues to understand what made them beautiful.
5Changes in LiteratureEducated people wrote in “pure” Latin. This was the Latin used in ancient Rome. Petrarch thought classical Latin was the best way to write. However, when he wanted to write poems to the women he loved, he wrote in the vernacular. (everyday language people speak)When authors wrote in the vernacular, many more people could read their work because most people could not speak Latin.
6The Printing Press Spreads Ideas The printing press was the key to spreading humanist ideas. In the early 1450s, Johannes Gutenburg invented the printing press, which used movable metal type.As a result. many books could be printed quickly. More people learned to read. Scholars read one another’s works. They wrote letters to discuss their thoughts. Ideas grew and spread more quickly than ever before.
7The Chinese had already invented movable type The Chinese had already invented movable type. Because of their large alphabet of characters, it did not work well. For Europeans, the printing press was a big improvement. It was easy to use with linen paper, another Chinese invention.Gutenburg’s Bible was printed in the 1450s. It was the first European book made on the new press. About 40,000 books were made by Half of these were religious works like the bible or prayer books.changed-the-world#the-book-that-changed-the-world
8Why was the printing press a big deal? On your blank sheet of paper draw a box in the top left corner. Then copy down the following passage. Make sure your lines are straight and your words are very neat. We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
9How did Humanism Affect Society? Humanists studied the Greeks and Romans to learn about many subjects.They studied plants, animals, the human body, medicine, stars, and planets. Their study of math helped them in many subjects.
10A Renaissance GreatLeonardo da Vinci was one of the best Renaissance scientists and artists. He studied dead bodies to learn about the human body. He studied fossils to understand history. He was also an inventor and engineer.Most of what we know about Leonardo comes from his notebooks. He had many sketches of scientific and artistic ideas. Hundreds of years before they were invented, da Vinci drew inventions such as a glider, a helicopter, and a parachute. He also drew a type o military tank and a scuba diving suit.
11The Renaissance Spreads In the late 1400s, the Renaissance spread to northern Europe and later to England.