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The Beginnings of Civilization-One

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1 The Beginnings of Civilization-One
Mrs. Cox Paisley IB World History ONE

2 Vocabulary 1. artifacts 2. culture 3. hominids 4.Mary Leakey
5. Donald Johanson 6. Louis Leakey 7. Paleolithic Era 8. nomads 9. hunter-gatherers 10. animism 11. Neolithic Era 12. Neolithic Revolution 13. domestication 14. Pastoralists 15. Megaliths 16. Bronze Age 17. Surplus 18. Division of Labor 19. Traditional economy 20. Civilizations 21. Artisans 22. Cultural Diffusion

3 Questions for Study 1 1. Name two famous anthropologists and their discoveries. 2. How did human ancestors cross from one continent to another? 3. Give six examples of Stone Age Technology. 4. Describe the art work of hunter-gatherers.

4 Questions 1 5. What happened during the Neolithic Revolution?
6. What impact did the end of the ice age have on early people? 7. Name five kinds of domesticated animals from this time period. 8. What was one of the major changes in society around 7000 BC? 9. Why did trade increase as food increased? 10. Name three negative effects of agricultural societies. Who is Otzi the iceman and what have scholars learned from him?

5 Questions 1 11. What was the result of irrigation?
12. Name the four ways in which early cities differed from villages. 13. Name two main characteristics of early civilizations. 14. Name four early civilizations. 15. Why did systems of writing develop? 16. What factors led to changes in early civilizations?

6 Studying The Distant Past
To study prehistory, the time before written records, scientists use a wide variety of clues. They look to artifacts such as tools, art, tombs, and weapons left behind by ancient people. These scientists include anthropologists, who study human culture, or a society’s knowledge, art, beliefs, customs, and values.

7 Studying The Distant Past
Anthropologists called archaeologists did into settlements to find objects used by early people. Workers then use tools to unearth objects people have left behind. By analyzing the remains archaeologists find, they can draw conclusions about long-ago people’s lives and culture.

8 Human Origins Based on bones and footprints that have been found, many experts believe that hominids are early ancestors of humans. Anthropologists made several significant discoveries in East Africa. In 1959, Mary Leakey found hominid bones that were more than 1.5 million years old. Donald Johanson uncovered an Australopithecine skeleton in Ethiopia that he named Lucy.

9 Human Origins Lucy lived over 3 million years ago and walked upright. Recently, a French team in Central Africa found 6-7 million-year-old remains with features from an Australopithecine and a chimpanzee. Louis Leakey found hominid remains he called Homo habilis, which he believed was more closely related to modern humans than Lucy.

10 Human Origins A type of hominids called Homo erectus, or “upright man,” appeared 2 to 1.5 million years ago. More intelligent than earlier hominids, they used more advanced tools like flint hand axes. Scientists also think that Homo erectus was the first hominid to control fire. Modern humans, Homo sapiens, appeared 200,000 years ago in Africa.

11 Human Origins Homo sapiens have larger brains than earlier hominids, developed more sophisticated tools and shelters, and eventually learned to create fire. Homo sapiens were probably also the first hominids to develop language.

12 Spreading Around The World
Early human ancestors began to migrate around the world from Africa to Asia and beyond. About 1.6 million years ago, long periods of freezing temperatures caused ice sheets to cover the land and lower ocean levels. These times were called ice ages. They created bridges of land between continents, which hominids could cross. In time, hominids died out and early humans began to migrate. By at least 9000 BC, humans lived on all continents except Antarctica.

13 Spreading Around The World
Two early groups of Homo sapiens that developed as people moved around the world were Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons. Neanderthals lived about 35,000 to 150,000 years ago. Cro-Magnons appeared about 45,000 years ago. They were physically identical to modern humans. They left behind fine tools, figurines, and cave art.

14 Life In The Stone Age Early humans lived during the Stone Age, which is divided into three sections based on the kinds of tools used at the time. The first part of the Stone Age is called the Paleolithic Ear, a time in which people used tools made of stone. People lived as nomads, moving from place to place following migrating animal herds.

15 Life In The Stone Age As the Stone Age continued, new technology helped early humans survive and improve life. People made tools from chipped stones, wood, and bone. They invented spears for easier hunting. Other technological developments included the bow and arrow, fishing hooks, canoes, needles for sewing clothes from animal skins, and shelters called pit-houses.

16 Life In The Stone Age Scholars call these people hunter-gatherers because they hunted animals and gathered the fruit, seeds, and nuts of wild plants for food. People also made art as well as musical instruments. Elaborate images of people and animals were painted on rocks and in caves. They may have been created to honor the spirits of the people and animals, a belief called animism. Figures were also carved out of many different materials such as animal teeth and bone.

17 The New Stone Age After the Paleolithic Era came the Neolithic Era, or New Stone Age. People learned to make tools and weapons with sharper edges, which led to the development of chisels, drills, and saws.

18 Development of Agriculture
The lives of early people changed dramatically about 10,000 years ago. People began to grow crops. By growing their food instead of just hunting animals and gathering food, early people greatly improved their chances of survival and forever changed history. The shift to farming is called the Neolithic Revolution.

19 Development of Agriculture
Farming started around the time the last ice age ended. Wild grains such as barley and wheat appeared due to the warmer weather. People began to gather the wild grains for food. This new food source caused the populations to grow and need even more food. In time, people experimented with planting seeds and learned to farm.

20 Development of Agriculture
Then, people began to practice domestication, the selective growing or breeding of plants and animals to make them more useful to humans. Animals such as dogs, cattle, goats, pigs, and sheep were also domesticated.

21 Development of Agriculture
Farming spread around the world at different rates. Some areas had plants and animals that were easier to domesticate than those in other places. Locations with similar climates transitioned to farming at about the same time, such as China and Central America.

22 Agriculture Changes Society
Agriculture allowed the world population to grow by providing a better food supply. It also change people’s way of life. Some people became pastoralists, ranging over wide areas and keeping herds of livestock to use for food and other materials. Others began staying in the same place and settling into permanent villages.

23 Agriculture Changes Society
By about 7000 BC some settlements grew into towns. Now, instead of hunting and gathering food, many people worked in the fields and tended livestock. Since more food was available, some people could spend more time doing activities other than food production. For example, some people became skilled at making crafts or tools.

24 Agriculture Changes Society
As people produced extra food and products, trade increased. Settlements traded with each other to obtain materials and products they lacked. Societies became more complex and prosperous, and differences in social status began to emerge. Some people gained more wealth and influence than others. Others rose to positions of authority such as overseeing the planting and harvesting or running building projects.

25 Agriculture Changes Society
Because men performed the heavier work in farming, they often held positions of authority. As a result, men began to gain dominance and status over women in many agricultural societies. Societies began to build structures such as megaliths for religious purposes. Megaliths are huge stone monuments that some Neolithic people in Europe built for burial or spiritual purposes.

26 Agriculture Changes Society
Agricultural societies also had some negative effects. Warfare increased as societies fought over land and resources. Crop failures made life difficult for people dependant on farming. Disease increased and spread rapidly among groups of people.

27 Agriculture Changes Society
Technology continued to develop. Animals pulled plows to produce larger fields of crops. Pestles and grindstones were used to prepare grains. Pottery was used for cooking and storing food. Wool from goats and sheep was weaved into cloth.

28 Agriculture Changes Society
When people began to use metal the Stone Age gave way to the Bronze Age. Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin that produces objects that are stronger and harder than copper alone.

29 Agriculture Changes Society
Catal Huyuk in present-day Turkey is an example of a Neolithic village. Some 5,000 to 6,000 people lived there around 6000 BC. The village covered more than 30 acres, making it the largest Neolithic site that archaeologists have found.

30 Agriculture Changes Society
Our knowledge of Neolithic societies continues to increase due to recent discoveries. In 1991 in the Italian Alps a 5,300 year-old frozen hunter nicknamed Otzi the Iceman was found by hikers. The cold had preserved his clothing and belongings, adding to scholars’ information about this time period.

31 From Villages to Cities
Over time, farmers worked to increase the food production of their farms. Their most important advance was the irrigation system, a network of canals or ditches linking crop fields to streams or to water storage basins. Irrigation enabled people to farm more land in drier conditions, producing more food. Some farmers began to produce a surplus, or excess, of food. Surplus food allowed villages to support larger populations.

32 From Villages To Cities
Now that fewer people were needed to produce food, some people could devote all of their time to specialized jobs like making tools or weapons. Others became weavers, potters, or religious leaders. Division of labor refers to the economic arrangement that allows workers to specialize in a particular job or task.

33 From Villages to Cities
Division of labor is different than the system of traditional economies that early farming villages had used. In a traditional economy, custom, tradition, or ritual is the basis of economic decisions. Having surplus food allowed villages to grow into cities because not everyone had to farm. Cities differ from early villages in four ways.

34 From Villages to Cities
First, they are larger and more populated. Second, city populations usually included many unrelated people who came from a wide area. Third, most early cities had a defined center containing palaces, temples, government buildings, marketplaces, and defined boundaries, often marked by defensive walls. Fourth, early cities served as centers of trade for merchants and farmers from the surrounding villages. The first known city was Uruk, located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what is now Iraq.

35 The First Civilizations
Civilizations, or complex cultures, grew out of early cities. The first civilizations grew up along river valleys that had enough fertile land to produce food to support a growing population. Civilizations use record keeping and have social classes, specialization of labor, government, religion, and arts. Major cities in early river valley civilizations include Ur and Uruk near the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Mesopotamia, Memphis on the Nile River in Egypt, Mohenjo-Daro on the Indus River in India, and Anyang near the Huang He in China.

36 The First Civilizations
Governments in the first civilizations created laws and systems of justice, gathered taxes, and organized defense. Religious institutions included priests who performed rituals, such as sacrificing animals, to try to gain the gods’ favor. Priests often became powerful and closely connected with governments.

37 The First Civilizations
As cities grew, the division of labor increased, and many new jobs developed. Skilled craft workers, or artisans, created useful everyday objects such as baskets and pottery. Over time, clear social classes emerged. Rulers and priests had the highest positions, followed by merchants, artisans, farmers and unskilled workers. Slaves often formed the bottom of the social order.

38 The First Civilizations
Systems of writing developed about 5,000 years ago in order to keep records such as tax records. Calendars developed to help farmers keep track of the changing seasons. Most public buildings in large cities featured elaborate statues of gods and rulers. Art and architecture reflected the wealth and power of the city and its leaders.

39 Changes in Civilizations
Civilizations constantly changed once they were established. Something as simple as the weather could help a city grow…or destroy it with drought. People still had to deal with disease and warfare. Early civilizations met challenges with new technologies and knowledge from other societies. Trade, migration, and invasion led to cultural diffusion. For example, artisans adopted styles from other civilizations and traders learned multiple languages.

40 Changes in Civilization
Civilizations went to war to control rich farmland, important sea ports, or regions with valuable resources. Through conquest, civilizations expanded their control over land and people. Conflicts also arose between civilizations and nomadic groups, who sometimes launched raids on villages and cities. Further conflicts also arose as nomads and farmers competed over land.

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