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THE SCIENCE BEHIND HOW THE BODY USES COMPONENTS OF FOOD TO GROW, MAINTAIN AND REPAIR ITSELF. What is Nutrition?

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Presentation on theme: "THE SCIENCE BEHIND HOW THE BODY USES COMPONENTS OF FOOD TO GROW, MAINTAIN AND REPAIR ITSELF. What is Nutrition?"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE SCIENCE BEHIND HOW THE BODY USES COMPONENTS OF FOOD TO GROW, MAINTAIN AND REPAIR ITSELF. What is Nutrition?

2 What are Nutrients? Chemical elements and compounds that are essential for grown and maintenance of life. Your body needs over 50 nutrients on a daily basis to function properly. Each of these nutrients or compounds helps the body in performing specific tasks.

3 What do all these have in common? Bread, Pasta, Rice Oats, Cereal, Wheat Quinoa, Barley Oranges, Apples, Bananas Lettuce, Peppers, Cucumber Carrots, Melons, Tomatoes

4 What do all these have in common? Olive Oil, Butter, Yogurt Eggs, Cheese, Milk Avocado, Coconut Oil Meat, Fish… Omega 3, 6, 9 Cholesterol

5 What do all these have in common? Meat, Fish, Eggs, Milk Nuts, Seeds Cheese, Hummus Amino Acids

6 What do all these have in common? Fruits, Vegetables, Meat, Milk, Bread, Rice A, B, C, D, E, K, Ca Water Soluble Fat Soluble

7 What do all these have in common? Vegetables, Fruits Milk, Meat Gatorade

8 Classes of Nutrients Macronutrients (nutrients needed in large amounts)  Carbohydrates(CHO)  Fats (FFA or Omega)  Proteins (Amino Acids or aa’s)  Water(H2O) Micronutrients (nutrients needed in small amounts)  Vitamins(water soluble vs fat soluble)  Minerals

9 Energy Yielding  CHO, Fats, Proteins Non Energy Yielding  Minerals, Vitamins and Water

10 Water Needed in large amounts Minimum 8 glasses/day or 2L Recommended 2-3L Athletes should drink more (1L more) In hot weather you should drink even more When not feeling well  drink more! Function of Water  Transports Nutrients in the body  Regulates Body Temperature  Removal of Waste/Toxins  Regulates all systems/functions of the body

11 Carbohydrates (CHO) Simple Carbs (sugars)  Fruit, milk, yogurt, juice and processed unhealthy snacks  Provide a quick source of energy  Easily broken down and absorbed  Pick the better choice? Complex Carbs (starches)  Pasta, bread, rice, vegetables, legumes  Body takes longer to break down  Provide a slow/steady source of energy  Pick the better choice?

12 Fibre Type of Complex CHO that the body cannot breakdown Not a source of energy Assists in removal of Cholesterol & Cancer causing chemicals Helps maintain a healthy body weight because it makes you feel more full  Expands in water Good sources include;  Vegetables, Fruits, Legumes, Whole Grains?

13 Proteins (aa’s) Found in all cells of the body Act as “Building blocks”  Form enzymes (assist in chemical reactions, ie; digestion)  Form WBC’s that fight infection  Form Hemoglobin which carries O2 in blood  Builds and forms muscle tissue Source of energy if CHO is not present (starvation) 20 different Amino Acids  Body is able to produce 11  The other 9 essential aa’s must be obtained through your diet High quality protein sources contain all 9 aa’s e.g. Fish, Meat, Eggs, Cheese Low quality protein sources lack 1 or more of the essential aa’s e.g. vegetables and grains

14 Fats (FFA’s) Concentrated source of energy Useful during long periods of lower intensity activity Assist in the absorption of vitamins Insulates (keeps you warm) Promotes proper nerve function Backbone of your Immune System The key is to choose good quality sources of Fats which come from organic plant sources and humanely raised animals. Good Fat vs Bad Fat? (the ongoing debate)

15 Vitamins Help to build and maintain cells Assist in the release of energy from macronutrients Keep you healthy (immune system) Water soluble vitamins cannot be stored (must be obtained from your diet daily)  Vitamin C Fat soluble vitamins can be stored in the liver and fat cells  Vitamin A,D,E,K

16 Minerals Inorganic Substances needed to maintain good health Assist in getting energy from macronutrients Make up bones, proteins and blood  Fe (iron) assists in carrying O2  Ca helps to build and maintain strong/healthy bones and teeth

17 Activity: Name that Nutrient! Grab a text book from the back of the class Turn to page 295 Begin reading about different vitamins and minerals Answer questions on the information sheet

18 Calories? Unit of measure used to calculate the energy obtained from food. The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a gram of water by 1 degree celcius CHO’s provide 4 calories per gram of CHO Fat provides 9 calories per gram of FFA Protein provides 4 calories per gram of protein How much should I eat each day? If you’re looking at 100% of daily nutritional requirement;  45-60% of that should come from CHO’s  20-35% should come from Fats  10-35% should come from Proteins Minerals and Vitamins are not listed here…why?

19 Energy in vs Energy out If you want to maintain your weight, calories consumed should be equal to calories burned from daily activity and metabolic processes. Your metabolic processes are also known as your RMR or resting metabolic rate. RMR is the amount of energy your body uses while it is completely at rest. The healthier you are, the higher and more efficient your RMR.

20 How much should I be eating? Harris Benedict Formula Each individual has different caloric needs Here’s how we do a quick estimate of your caloric needs. Step 1: Find your weight in kg. 1kg = 2.2lbs Therefore, 165lbs / 2.2 = 75kg

21 Step 2: Find your daily RMR in calories Females: Weight in kg x 22 = daily RMR in calories Example: 55kg x 22 = 1210 calorie/day Males: Weight in kg x 24.2 = daily RMR in calories Example: 75kg x 24.2 = 1815 calories/day

22 Step 3: Find total daily caloric need by multiplying your RMR by the appropriate activity factor. Activity Factors  Sedentary (little to no exercise) = RMR x 1.2  Light exercise (1-3 days/week) = RMR x  Moderate exercise (3-5 days/week) = RMR x 1.55  High Intensity (6-7 days/week) = RMR x  High Intensity daily = RMR x 1.9

23 Example Moderately active Female (3-5days/week) 55kg x 22 x 1.55 = cal/day CHO = x 45%-60% = cal/day =211g-281g of CHO/day Fat = x 20%-35% = cal/day =42g- 73g of Fat/day Protein = x 10%-35% = cal/day = 47g-164g of protein/day

24 Nutritional value of food 1 medium apple = 21g of CHO + 4.5g of fiber and 95 calories 1 medium banana = 24g of CHO + 3g of fiber and 105 calories 1 medium pepper = 5g of CHO + 2g of fiber and 37 calories 1 medium tomato = 2g of CHO + 1g of fiber and 11 calories 1 medium sweet potato = 20g of CHO + 4g of fiber and 105 calories 1 egg = 11g Fat, 13g Protein and 155 calories 1 chicken leg with skin = 15g of Fat, 29g of Protein and 264 calories Beef T-Bone (9 oz) = 23g of Fat, 69g of Protein and 504 calories Salmon (1/2 fillet, 154g) = 12.5g of Fat, 39g of Protein and 280 calories

25 Activity: Canada’s Food Guide Take a few minutes to browse over the Canada’s Food guide. Answer the following questions What are the Food Groups as listed by the Canada’s Food Guide? How many servings should you be getting per day from each food group? How big is 1 serving? Give two examples from each food group. (two different food items) p307 Summarize the Canada’s Food Guide Recommendations (p ) Discuss Recommendations together!

26 Nutritional Labels and Healthy Eating Read page in the Healthy Active Living Textbook

27 Key points of understanding food labels Buy and eat products with labels that…  Have ingredients you can pronounce!  Have ingredients that you recognize!  Have as few ingredients as possible!  Be aware of “light”, “low fat”, “calorie reduced” & “fat free” products…why?! It’s always better to eat natural, fresh/whole food!

28 Key points of understanding food labels The ingredients on a label are listed from the highest amount of that ingredient to the lowest!

29 Understanding Vegetarianism p.300 Semi-Vegetarian  Avoids Red Meat Lacto-Ovo Vegetarian  Avoids Meat/Fish Ovo-Vegetarian  Avoids Meat/Fish, Dairy Lacto-Vegetarian  Meat/Fish, and Eggs Vegan  Meat/Fish, Eggs, Dairy (any animal product) Possible complications?

30 Body Image & Self Esteem BODY IMAGE: THE MENTAL PICTURE I HAVE OF MY BODY AND ALL THE ASSOCIATED FEELINGS,THOUGHTS, JUDGEMENTS AND BEHAVIOURS SELF-ESTEEM: THE VALUE I PLACE ON MYSELF…THE IMAGE I HAVE OF MYSELF MEASURED AGAINST WHAT I THINK IT SHOULD BE. HAVE FAITH IN OUR OWN COMPETENCE.

31 Factors that affect Body Image & Self Esteem Fashion/Media  Prior to the 20 th century, European women with full –rounded figures were considered beautiful and fashionable.  Most models today weigh about 20-25% less than the average woman in our society. This weight is actually within the anorexic weight range  Girls who try to emulate these models are aiming to achieve an unhealthy weight.  Today the weight of women has increased mainly due to poor nutritional practices, decreased physical activity and an increase in overall levels of stress.

32 Peers  As teens seek out independence from their families, their world increasingly revolves around their friends.  Studies show that friendship cliques shared similar body image attributes, and were similar in their levels of dieting and use of extreme weight loss behaviours. The exception being binge eating due to being ashamed to tell their friends about it. (mean girls example)  The more frequently a girl compared her own body and weight to others, the more weight and shape concerns she had.  The greater the use of extreme weight control strategies by a girl’s friends, the greater the likelihood that she would also use these methods.  Young men use steroids to feel better about their body image, believing bigger muscles will mean more respect from their peers, or, they use them to improve performance in sport.

33 Family  While society sends compelling messages about how a teen boy and girl should look, it is within the family that self-image is first formed.  Parents transmit the societal norm of beauty to their children.  Parents who are preoccupied with improving their own appearance indirectly transmit these messages by alerting their teens to do the same.  Parents may directly pressure their teens to watch their weight or tease them about their appearance.  Young men use steroids because they feel pressure to be strong and “be the man of the family”.

34 Body Types Ectomorph  Ecto’s have a light build with small joints and lean muscle. Usually ectomorph’s have long thin limbs with stringy muscles.  Flat chest, Small shoulders & Thin  Lean muscle mass  Finds it hard to gain weight  Fast metabolism  Find it very hard to gain weight.  They have a fast metabolism which burns up calories very quickly. Tips :  Ecto’s need a lot of nutrient dense food in order to gain weight.  Workouts should be short and intense focusing on big muscle groups.  Etomorphs should eat before bed to prevent muscle catabolism during the night.  Generally, ectomorphs can lose fat very easily which makes cutting back to lean muscle easier for them.

35 Mesomorph A Mesomorph has a large bone structure & large muscles Naturally athletic physique and the best body type for bodybuilding. Find it quite easy to gain and lose weight. (both muscle and fat) Naturally strong  perfect platform for building muscle Rectangular shaped body Tips:  Responds best to weight training  Gains are usually seen very quickly, especially for beginners Special Considerations:  Mesomorphs gain fat more easily than Ectomorphs  Must watch their calorie intake  Usually a combination of weight training and cardio works best for mesomorphs.

36 Endomorph The endomorph body type is solid and generally soft (soft & round body) Gain fat very easily Endo’s are usually of a shorter build with thick arms and legs Muscles are strong, especially the upper legs Gains muscle and fat easily but muscles are not well defined Is generally short "Stocky" build Round physique Finds it hard to lose fat due to a slow metabolism (RMR) Tips:  Train cardio as well as weights  Focus on a higher protein intake from legumes, plants and lean meats.  Eat plenty of carbohydrates from plant sources, mainly vegetables  Eat often and small portions to stimulate a faster RMR  Last meal should be 2-3 hours before bed

37 Body Types

38 Endomorph Heavyweight (225lbs+) 6’1”

39 Mesomorph Middleweight (185lbs) 6’1”

40 Ectomorph Lightweight (155lbs) 5’10”

41 What body type are you?? il&obj_id=127243&filter=popular&time_span=latest &sub_action=take il&obj_id=127243&filter=popular&time_span=latest &sub_action=take

42 Set Point Theory Each body has a particular weight it tends to maintain Genetics play a key role in determining body weight and shape If an individual’s weight is below or above the set point weight range… The body will experience physiological and emotional changes in an attempt to re-establish itself

43 Tips to a healthy and happy you… There is no “ideal” weight for those of the same height and age because people have different body shapes and frames There is a range of weights that is healthy for each height Healthy eating and regular physical activity will lead to a healthy weight Live a simple life with low emotional and psychological stress


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