2The Basic Terms of Economics Part I:The Basic Terms of Economics
3People in EconomicsIn any society, there are two major players in economics.producer – maker and/or seller of goods and servicesconsumer – buyer and/or user of goods and services (everyone is a consumer)
4Needs vs. Wantsneeds – something humans require for survival (food, water, clothing, shelter)wants – something desired, beyond what is required for survival (IPOD, cell phone)
5Goods vs. Services good – any manufactured product ex. food, shoes, or TVsservice – work done for othersex. police, restaurants, doctors, beauticians, teachers
6Scarcity a shortage of goods or services In any society, there is never enough of everything to satisfy everyone’s wants and needs.Unlimited wants and limited resources force choices.Individuals, businesses, and governments all make choices due to scarcity.
7Scarcity in Developed Nations insufficient domestic petroleumlack of raw materialsunfavorable balance of trade (more imports than exports)
8Scarcity in Underdeveloped Nations not enough farmland, water, and foodlack of medical personnel, supplies, and facilitieslack of transportation for goodslack of building materialslack of employmentlack of capital for investmentlack of education
9Allocation of Resources deciding who gets what resource because people’s wants exceed the available resource resulting in scarcityopportunity cost –something that is givenup when something elseis chosen
10Economic DecisionsProducers in an economy must make basic economic decisions.What to produce?How to produce?For whom to produce?
11Law of Supply and Demand supply – the amount of a good or service available for sale in a marketdemand – the amount of a good or service wanted in a marketWhen supply is up and demand is down,prices go down.When supply is downand demand is up,prices go up.
12Resources: The Factors of Production Part IIResources: The Factors of Production
13Productive Resourcesavailability of these impacts the economic decisionsfour major categories:naturalhumancapital (goods and human)entrepreneurship
14Natural Resourcesincludes the sun, wind, water, oceans, rivers, gifts of nature, and mineral resources available in an area
15Human Resourceslaborpeople with talent, knowledge, and skills
16Capital Goods Capital goods are the tools. This is not money! These are things that have been produced by past efforts of people that are used in production of goods and services.Examples include: tools, equipment, buildings, machinery, and factories.This is not money!Money is NOT a resource; money is a means or medium of exchange.Money is not worth anything by itself. Its value is for what we can exchange the money.
17Human CapitalInvesting in human capital involves training & education.If you improve people skills, then they will be more productive.People with more education will earn more.Teachers are investing in human capital.
18Entrepreneurshipentrepreneur – person who risks capital to produce a good or serviceinvestor – person who provides capital to an entrepreneurmiddleman – a trader who buys goods from the producer and, in turn, sells the goods to another seller or sells directly to the consumer for profit (involves mark up in price to consumer at each exchange)ability and willingness to see an opportunity to make a profit by making and selling a good or service the willing ness to risk capital
19Opportunity Recognition Entrepreneurs must recognize an unmet demand in the economy and try to meet it.This involves risk taking.China – people grow rice in flooded fields, in which they also raise fish to sellTruett Cathy - Chick-fil-a
20TechnologyAdvancements in technology have led to higher productivity and a higher standard of living.
21Examples of Technology the wheelirrigationhydroelectric powerautomobilestelephonescomputers
23PERSONAL FINANCEFinancial planning for individuals. Generally, it involves analyzing their current financial position, predicting short-term and long-term needs, and recommending a financial strategy. The financial strategy involves setting a budget and planning for future needs and wants.
24INCOMEThe monetary payment received for goods or services, or from other sources, as rents or investments.Income is money that literally “comes in” on a regular basis. For most people, income is something that comes from getting paid for doing work. Some people, however, are able to live off from their savings or investments. Income may also come from gifts or from selling something.
25Spendingto pay out, disburse, or expend; dispose of (money, wealth, resources, etc.):Money is needed for food, shelter, and clothing. Of course, people spend money on things they want, too.Things that we want but do not need are called luxuries.The best way to spend money wisely is to make a BUDGET, which is a plan for how much money will be spent on each type of item that a person must buy.
26SAVINGS 1 Goal of BUDGETING is to save money. Saving allows people to plan to buy something expensive in the future. (i.e., car, house, vacation, etc.)Many different ways to save money. EX. Piggy bank, not necessarily safe.Best way of saving money is to put it in a bank.By saving in a bank, your money can earn interest. Interest is money that the bank pays you to use your money.
27CREDITWhen savings and income are not enough to pay for what a person wants or needs, he or she can use credit.Credit is money that you borrow from a bank.When you let the bank use your money, that bank pays you interest.When you use the bank’s money, you then must pay the bank interestThere are many different types of CREDIT, credit cards, home loans, and car loans.Anytime money is owed, credit is extended.The key to personal finance is never to borrow more than you can pay off in a reasonable amount of time.
28InvestmentInvestment is the investing of money or capital in order to gain profitable returns, as interest, income, or appreciation in value.Investing is spending money in the hopes of earning more money than is spent.EX. Collectable trading cards. A card that is bought for $1 may someday be worth $10. A return of $9- which is 900%.
29INVESTMENTusing money or capital in order to gain profitable returns, as interest, income, or appreciation in value.Investing is spending money in the hope of earning more money than is spent.EX. Collectable trading cards. A card that is bought for a $1 may someday be worth $10. A return of $9- which is 900% investment gain.EX. Honus Wagoner card in 1909cost less than 50¢, this yearit sold for $2.35 million.