Presentation on theme: "History and Institutional Structures : What It Looks Like and How It Got That Way."— Presentation transcript:
History and Institutional Structures : What It Looks Like and How It Got That Way
Centralization vs Local Control Rural vs Urban Focus Minority/Disadvantaged vs Majority Religious vs Public Education Professional vs Public Accountability
Early Settlement 1870-1910 : Settlers established local school districts, usually 16- 25 square miles, funded primarily from local taxes. Locally elected school board hired teacher for the one room school. Quality of education was often poor.
Attempts to Centralize and Improve Quality: Foght Commission (1919) – proposed municipal school divisions rejected. Seen as taking control from local level. Reid Report (1933) proposed larger school units. No action. Committee on School Administration (1939) proposes voluntary creation of larger school units. No action.
The Larger School Units Act (1944) Enacted by the newly elected CCF provincial government. Compulsory creation of larger school units. Improved quality of education. Deeply resented by many rural communities as a loss of local control. No more significant change until 2004; prior attempts at voluntary restructuring had limited success.
Concerns over Funding: Too much rural property tax to K- 12 Education. Rural tax revolt. Province Restructures K-12 Education Restructured school divisions – larger, fewer (31 vs more than 120). Fairer funding system – province. Education property tax relief.
Increased Centralization of Control – Ministry, SSBA, STF, etc. Decline in Local Decision Making. Funding Control – Provincial Government. Equitable Funding – School Divisions. Provincial Accountability Frameworks – Student Achievement, Board Spending and Policy (school closures, disadvantaged, etc).
Provincial Government Ministry of Education First Nations Board of Education S.S.B.A. Schools. School Community Council L.E.A.D.S. F.S.I.N. Director of Education S.T.F. Superintendents Unions Principals Vice-Principals Teachers Paraprofessionals & Support Staff
Provincial Government: Authority for control of education is derived from Section 93 of the B.N.A. Ministry of Education: To foster, guide and promote all aspects of PreK-12 education in the province. Boards of Education: Elected corporate bodies, responsible to the public, with a mandate to provide students with learning opportunities consistent with the Board’s Vision, Mission and Beliefs. Boards of Education provide the strategic direction for their school division. School Community Councils: Facilitate parent, student & community participation in school planning. Parent, student & community members are elected. The principal is a permanent member, and another teacher is selected as a representative.
Director of Education: CEO of the School Division. Hired by the Board. Oversees all aspects of the division’s operations. Superintendents: Work closely with the Director. They fill a variety of roles and are given titles and mandates that may vary from division to division. Principals: Responsible for the organization, administration & supervision of the school, its programs and staff, and the well- being and good order of its pupils (Sec. 175 (2) The Education Act 1995). Vice-Principals: In large schools they often assume specific tasks (eg. Student attendance or discipline). In smaller schools they work in concert and cooperation with the principal performing whatever tasks are deemed necessary.
Teachers: Section 231(1) The Education Act 1995 says teachers “are responsible for advancing the educational standards and efficiency of the school, participating in educational planning with the staff or as provided by the Board, and advancing their own professional competence.” Section 321(2) lists 17 other “Functions and Duties” ranging from teaching, planning, record-keeping, discipline, data collection, to attending staff meetings. Paraprofessional and Support Staff: includes people such as Educational Assistants/Teacher Aides, Secretaries, Library technicians/aides, caretakers, janitors, bus drivers, and maintenance personnel. Actual titles and duties may vary from division to division.
The Ministry of Education has the ultimate responsibility for K-12 education in the province, including – Revisions to the Act; Review of FOG; Increase distance-learning opportunities; Funding; Liaison with Boards; communities and organizations. The SSBA represents all public & separate Boards of Education, with a mission to “be the voice of public education in Saskatchewan,” by providing “services, support and advocacy leadership to Boards.”
The League of Educational Administrators, Directors and Superintendents: made up of “out-of-scope,” “central office” personnel. A L.E.A.D.S. member is expected to be a: Leader of Leaders; Servant of Leaders; Professional advocate; Steward of Quality Education. The Saskatchewan Teacher’s Federation is the professional organization of teachers in Saskatchewan. It defines its roles as supporting and modeling leadership that embodies: Respect in all relationships; Service and stewardship to children and teachers; Individual and collective empowerment; Equity and Social Justice.
Saskatchewan Association of School Board Officials (SASBO). The members are generally those people who coordinate the financial business of school divisions. Their mandate is, “to assist members towards the efficient administration of school board management and to maintain the highest standards of professionalism, skill and knowledge among all school board officials.” Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations (FSIN). Represents the interests of the First Nations community at the provincial level. This includes schools and their students. The role of First Nations schools and the FSIN voice in educational matters will grow in significance.