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Chapter 11: Health Psychology – Stress, Coping, and Well-Being Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: Health Psychology – Stress, Coping, and Well-Being Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 11: Health Psychology – Stress, Coping, and Well-Being Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

3 Health Psychology Investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems Psychoneuroimmunology –The study of the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain

4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Stress and Coping Stress –The response to events that threaten or challenge a person Psychophysiological disorders –Medical problems that are influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties

5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The General Adaptation Syndrome Alarm and mobilization stage –Become aware of the presence of a stressor Resistance stage –Preparation to fight the stressor Exhaustion stage –Negative consequences of the stress appear

6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Categorizing Stressors Cataclysmic events –Strong stressors that occur suddenly and typically affect many people simultaneously Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) –Phenomena where victims of major catastrophes re- experience the original event and the associated feelings in vivid flashbacks or dreams

7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Categorizing Stressors Personal stressors –Major life events that produce an immediate major reactions that soon tapers off Background stressors (daily hassles) –Minor irritations of life that we all face time and time again Uplifts –Minor positive events that make one feel good

8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Learned Helplessness A point when people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled A view of the the world that becomes so ingrained that they cease trying to remedy the aversive circumstances

9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coping with Stress Coping –The efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress Defense mechanisms –Reactions that maintain a person’s sense of control and self-worth by distorting or denying the actual nature of the situation –Emotional insulation Cessation of emotional experience

10 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coping with Stress Emotion-focused coping –Method of managing emotion in the face of stress by seeking to change the way they feel or perceive a problem Problem-focused coping –Attempts to modify the stressful problem or source of the stress

11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coping with Stress Hardiness –Personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness Commitment Challenge Control Social support –A mutual network of caring, interested others

12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The A’s and B’s of Coronary Heart Disease Type A behavior pattern –Individuals that are competitive, show a continual sense of urgency about time, are aggressive, exhibit a driven quality regarding their work, and are hostile both verbally and nonverbally Type B behavior pattern –Individuals who are more cooperative, far less competitive, not especially time-oriented, and not usually aggressive, driven, or hostile

13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Psychological Aspects of Cancer Emotional response Optimism

14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. smoking Heredity factors Rite of passage Habit forming Quitting –Replacement therapies –Psychotherapy –Societal views

15 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Well-Being and Happiness Subjective well-being –Person’s evaluations of their life, in terms of both their thoughts and emotions Characteristics –High self-esteem –Sense of control –Optimism –Sociable

16 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Psychological Factors Related to Physical Illness Physician-patient communication –Social prestige of physician –Technical nature of interview –Cultural values and expectations

17 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Forms of Patient Noncompliance Creative nonadherence –Adjust treatment prescribed by physician Reactance –Negative emotional and cognitive reaction that results from the restriction of one’s freedom


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