Presentation on theme: "World Studies: The Enlightenment"— Presentation transcript:
1World Studies: The Enlightenment Mrs. ShortHilliard Davidson High SchoolCh
2A SHORT Time to PonderHow could new technology or knowledge completely change peoples’ views on the world?What could be something that would completely change your view on the world?
3The Scientific Revolution Chapter 8.1 Occurred 17th and 18th centuriesProduced new theories about the structure of the universe and humankind’s relationship to itWitnessed first age of global warfare7 Years WarFought in Europe, North America and India
10Universal Law of Gravitation universal law of gravitation – one of Newton’s three rules of motion; it explains that planetary bodies continue in elliptical orbits around the sun because every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity
11RationalismRationalism – a system of thought expounded by Rene Descartes based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge
12Scientific MethodScientific method – a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence that was crucial to the evolution of science in the modern world
13Inductive Reasoninginductive reasoning – the doctrine that scientists should proceed from the particular to the general by making systematic observations and carefully organized experiments to test hypothesis or theories, a process that will lead to correct general principles
14Galileo Galilei3 Important Discoveries: (mountains on moon; four moons around Jupiter; sun spots)Conclusion: Planets/moon/etc. are Solid (not heavenly bodies of light)Church’s Reaction?
15Johannes Kepler German mathematician Provided information against Ptolemaic systemKepler’s 1st Law: movements not circular elliptical (egg shaped)
16Isaac Newton Kinda a big deal 3 Laws of Motion Universal law of gravitationImplication: universe worked like one huge, regulated, uniform machine that worked according to natural laws
17Margaret Cavendish“We have no power at all over natural causes and effects… for man is but a small part, his powers are but particulars of Nature, and he cannot have a supreme and absolute power.”Cavendish, Observations Upon Experimental PhilosophyHow do her ideas differ from others of the time?
18Rene Descartes (Day-KAHRT) French philosopher“I think, therefore I am.” – Descartes, Discourse on Method, 1637mind and matterfather of rationalism
19Francis Bacon English Philosopher Scientific method Inductive reasoningBelieved “human power” could be used to “conquer nature in action”
20A SHORT Time to Ponder Influence of Scientific Breakthroughs Changes in Worldview?
22ReasonReason – the application of the scientific method to an understanding of all lifeNatural lawProgressBetter societyhope
23John Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding tabula rasa (blank mind)Sided with nurture in nature vs. nurture debateCreate ideal environment, and people will change for the bettera priori vs. a posteriori
24Philosophephilosophe – French for “philosopher”; applied to all intellectuals during the Enlightenment
25Separation of PowersCharles-Louis de Seondat, the baron de Montesquieu:Separation of powers – a form of government in which the executive, legislative, and judicial branches limit and control each other through a system of checks and balances
26Voltaire Real name: Francois-Marie Aurouet Parisian (from Paris) Criticized ChristianityBelieved in religious tolerance (fought against religious intolerance in FranceSupport Deism
27DeismDeism – an 18th century religious philosophy based on reason and natural lawBased on a Newtonian world machineChampioned by Voltaire
28Laissez-FaireLaissez-faire – the concept that the state should not impose government regulations, but should leave the economy alone
29Types of Authorityauthority - the power to determine, adjudicate, or otherwise settle issues or disputes; jurisdiction; the right to control, command, or determinelegitimate - in accordance with established rules, principles, or standardstypes of legitimate authority:traditional authority: Power legitimized by respect for long-established cultural patterns.charismatic authority: Power legitimized by extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion and obedience.rational-legal authority: Also known as bureaucratic authority, is when power is legitimized by legally enacted rules and regulations such as governments.
30Social Contract Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Social contract – the concept that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will and all individuals should be forced to abide by it since it represents what is best for the entire community
31Isaac Newton Influence on Enlightenment Philosophers Believed everything was like a giant world machine; the world operates according to natural laws that could be uncovered though systematic investigation
32Encylopedia Compiled by Diderot Purpose: “change the general way of thinking”Why do you think it was so influential?
33Enlightenment on Religion natural law - an ethical belief or system of beliefs supposed to be inherent in human nature and discoverable by reason rather than revelation (diminishes church power)Spread of literacy and knowledge diminishes church authority
34Enlightenment on the Role of Women Mary Wollstonecraft:A Vindication of the Rights of WomenPointed out the hypocrisy of the men:Arbitrary (at one’s discretion; random) power of monarchs over MEN = wrongWomen should OBEY men = right
35SalonsSalons – the elegant urban drawing rooms where, in the 18th century, writers, artists, aristocrats, government officials and wealthy middle-class people gathered to discuss the ideas of the philosophes
36Enlightenment on the Arts LiteratureLiteracy (the ability to read) increasedRealistic novels became popularArchitectureModeled on Italian Baroque style of 1500sPalace of Louis XIV at Versailles (VER-SIGH)Rococo artMusicJoseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (classical music)
37RococoRococo – an artistic style that replaced baroque in the 1730s; it was highly secular, emphasizing grace, charm and gentle actionFrançois Boucher was a French painter noted for his romantic, pastoral and mythological scenes. His work embodies the frivolity and sensuousness of the rococo style. He created hundreds of paintings, decorative boudoir panels, tapestry designs, theater designs, and book illustrations. He designed for the Beauvais tapestry works and in 1755 became director of the Gobelins tapestries.
38Music Classical Music Joseph Haydn Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart The CreationThe SeasonWolfgang Amadeus MozartThe Marriage of FigaroThe Magic FluteDon Giovanni
39Enlightened Absolutism and the Balance of Power Ch. 8.3
40Enlightened Absolutism enlightened absolutism – a system in which rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers
41Balance of Power18th century philosophers believe that it was better for the nations to have similar amounts of power.Do you think this would be a good thing or a bad thing?
42SuccessorSuccessor – on that follows, especially one who takes over a throne, title, estate or office
43Frederick William I (Prussia) By end of reign in 1740, doubled size of army4th largest armyFranceRussiaAustriaPrusiaEnlightened:Maintained a highly efficient bureaucracyNot Enlightened“One must serve the king with life and limb, … and surrender everything except salvation. The latter is reserved for God. But everything else must be mine
44Frederick II / Frederick the Great (Prussia) Enlightened:Was on of the best educated monarchsAbolished the use of torture except in treason and murder casesGranted limited freedom of speech and press, and religious tolerationNot Enlightened:Kept rigid (inflexible, unyielding) social structure intact and avoided any addition reforms
45Empress Maria Theresa (Austria) Mother of Joseph IIEnlightened:Improved the conditions of serfsNot Enlightened:Was not open to reforms called for by the Philosophes
46Joseph II (Austria) Enlightened: Not Enlightened: “I have made Philoophy the lawmaker of my empire>”Abolished serfdomEliminated the death penaltyEstablished equality of all before the lawNot Enlightened:Largely failed in endeavors/unpopularReforms undid almost all of his reforms
47Catherine II / Catherine the Great (Russia) successor of Peter the Greatruled Russia fromExpanded Russian territory (50% of Poland)Enlightened:IntelligentFamiliar with the works of the philosophesConsidered the idea of a new law code that would recognize the principle of equality of all people in the eyes of the lawNot Enlightened:Did not implement reformsFavored the landed nobility worse conditions for Russian peasantsAFTER Rebellion: took stronger measures against peasant and expanded serfdom
487 Years WarBegan 1740 over succession to the Austrian throne; Maria Theresa came to throneFrederick II of Prussia invaded during confusionWatch videos on Web site (Crash Course… both US and World)The End
49Enlightenment Philosophers vs Enlightenment Philosophers vs. Scientific Thinkers of Scientific Revolution** was after social contract… add
50Spread of Enlightenment Ideas ** was after Catherine II / Catherine the Great… add