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World Studies: The Enlightenment

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1 World Studies: The Enlightenment
Mrs. Short Hilliard Davidson High School Ch

2 A SHORT Time to Ponder How could new technology or knowledge completely change peoples’ views on the world? What could be something that would completely change your view on the world?

3 The Scientific Revolution Chapter 8.1
Occurred 17th and 18th centuries Produced new theories about the structure of the universe and humankind’s relationship to it Witnessed first age of global warfare 7 Years War Fought in Europe, North America and India

4 The Scientific Revolution
Examples Significance?

5 New Languages New (OLD) Languages Examples: Greek and Latin
Significance: Opposing Points of View New Language of Mathematics Significance?

6 Mathematics Examples Significance: seen as the key to Navigation
Military science geography

7 Geocentric – Earth-centered; a system of planetary motion in which the sun, moon and other planets revolve around the earth Geocentric

8 Heliocentric Heliocentric – sun-centered; the suystem of the universe in which the Earth and planets revolve around the sun

9 Ptolemy vs. Copernicus Similarities? Differences?

10 Universal Law of Gravitation
universal law of gravitation – one of Newton’s three rules of motion; it explains that planetary bodies continue in elliptical orbits around the sun because every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity

11 Rationalism Rationalism – a system of thought expounded by Rene Descartes based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge

12 Scientific Method Scientific method – a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence that was crucial to the evolution of science in the modern world

13 Inductive Reasoning inductive reasoning – the doctrine that scientists should proceed from the particular to the general by making systematic observations and carefully organized experiments to test hypothesis or theories, a process that will lead to correct general principles

14 Galileo Galilei 3 Important Discoveries: (mountains on moon; four moons around Jupiter; sun spots) Conclusion: Planets/moon/etc. are Solid (not heavenly bodies of light) Church’s Reaction?

15 Johannes Kepler German mathematician
Provided information against Ptolemaic system Kepler’s 1st Law: movements not circular  elliptical (egg shaped)

16 Isaac Newton Kinda a big deal 3 Laws of Motion
Universal law of gravitation Implication: universe worked like one huge, regulated, uniform machine that worked according to natural laws

17 Margaret Cavendish “We have no power at all over natural causes and effects… for man is but a small part, his powers are but particulars of Nature, and he cannot have a supreme and absolute power.” Cavendish, Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy How do her ideas differ from others of the time?

18 Rene Descartes (Day-KAHRT)
French philosopher “I think, therefore I am.” – Descartes, Discourse on Method, 1637 mind and matter father of rationalism

19 Francis Bacon English Philosopher Scientific method
Inductive reasoning Believed “human power” could be used to “conquer nature in action”

20 A SHORT Time to Ponder Influence of Scientific Breakthroughs
Changes in Worldview?

21 The Ideas of the Enlightenment Ch. 8.2

22 Reason Reason – the application of the scientific method to an understanding of all life Natural law Progress Better society hope

23 John Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding
tabula rasa (blank mind) Sided with nurture in nature vs. nurture debate Create ideal environment, and people will change for the better a priori vs. a posteriori

24 Philosophe philosophe – French for “philosopher”; applied to all intellectuals during the Enlightenment

25 Separation of Powers Charles-Louis de Seondat, the baron de Montesquieu: Separation of powers – a form of government in which the executive, legislative, and judicial branches limit and control each other through a system of checks and balances

26 Voltaire Real name: Francois-Marie Aurouet Parisian (from Paris)
Criticized Christianity Believed in religious tolerance (fought against religious intolerance in France Support Deism

27 Deism Deism – an 18th century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law Based on a Newtonian world machine Championed by Voltaire

28 Laissez-Faire Laissez-faire – the concept that the state should not impose government regulations, but should leave the economy alone

29 Types of Authority authority - the power to determine, adjudicate, or otherwise settle issues or disputes; jurisdiction; the right to control, command, or determine legitimate - in accordance with established rules, principles, or standards types of legitimate authority: traditional authority: Power legitimized by respect for long-established cultural patterns. charismatic authority: Power legitimized by extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion and obedience. rational-legal authority: Also known as bureaucratic authority, is when power is legitimized by legally enacted rules and regulations such as governments.

30 Social Contract Jean-Jacques Rousseau:
Social contract – the concept that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will and all individuals should be forced to abide by it since it represents what is best for the entire community

31 Isaac Newton Influence on Enlightenment Philosophers
Believed everything was like a giant world machine; the world operates according to natural laws that could be uncovered though systematic investigation

32 Encylopedia Compiled by Diderot
Purpose: “change the general way of thinking” Why do you think it was so influential?

33 Enlightenment on Religion
natural law - an ethical belief or system of beliefs supposed to be inherent in human nature and discoverable by reason rather than revelation (diminishes church power) Spread of literacy and knowledge  diminishes church authority

34 Enlightenment on the Role of Women
Mary Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Women Pointed out the hypocrisy of the men: Arbitrary (at one’s discretion; random) power of monarchs over MEN = wrong Women should OBEY men = right

35 Salons Salons – the elegant urban drawing rooms where, in the 18th century, writers, artists, aristocrats, government officials and wealthy middle-class people gathered to discuss the ideas of the philosophes

36 Enlightenment on the Arts
Literature Literacy (the ability to read) increased Realistic novels became popular Architecture Modeled on Italian Baroque style of 1500s Palace of Louis XIV at Versailles (VER-SIGH) Rococo art Music Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (classical music)

37 Rococo Rococo – an artistic style that replaced baroque in the 1730s; it was highly secular, emphasizing grace, charm and gentle action François Boucher was a French painter noted for his romantic, pastoral and mythological scenes. His work embodies the frivolity and sensuousness of the rococo style. He created hundreds of paintings, decorative boudoir panels, tapestry designs, theater designs, and book illustrations. He designed for the Beauvais tapestry works and in 1755 became director of the Gobelins tapestries.

38 Music Classical Music Joseph Haydn Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
The Creation The Season Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart The Marriage of Figaro The Magic Flute Don Giovanni

39 Enlightened Absolutism and the Balance of Power Ch. 8.3

40 Enlightened Absolutism
enlightened absolutism – a system in which rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers

41 Balance of Power 18th century philosophers believe that it was better for the nations to have similar amounts of power. Do you think this would be a good thing or a bad thing?

42 Successor Successor – on that follows, especially one who takes over a throne, title, estate or office

43 Frederick William I (Prussia)
By end of reign in 1740, doubled size of army 4th largest army France Russia Austria Prusia Enlightened: Maintained a highly efficient bureaucracy Not Enlightened “One must serve the king with life and limb, … and surrender everything except salvation. The latter is reserved for God. But everything else must be mine

44 Frederick II / Frederick the Great (Prussia)
Enlightened: Was on of the best educated monarchs Abolished the use of torture except in treason and murder cases Granted limited freedom of speech and press, and religious toleration Not Enlightened: Kept rigid (inflexible, unyielding) social structure intact and avoided any addition reforms

45 Empress Maria Theresa (Austria)
Mother of Joseph II Enlightened: Improved the conditions of serfs Not Enlightened: Was not open to reforms called for by the Philosophes

46 Joseph II (Austria) Enlightened: Not Enlightened:
“I have made Philoophy the lawmaker of my empire>” Abolished serfdom Eliminated the death penalty Established equality of all before the law Not Enlightened: Largely failed in endeavors/unpopular Reforms undid almost all of his reforms

47 Catherine II / Catherine the Great (Russia)
successor of Peter the Great ruled Russia from Expanded Russian territory (50% of Poland) Enlightened: Intelligent Familiar with the works of the philosophes Considered the idea of a new law code that would recognize the principle of equality of all people in the eyes of the law Not Enlightened: Did not implement reforms Favored the landed nobility  worse conditions for Russian peasants AFTER Rebellion: took stronger measures against peasant and expanded serfdom

48 7 Years War Began 1740 over succession to the Austrian throne; Maria Theresa came to throne Frederick II of Prussia invaded during confusion Watch videos on Web site (Crash Course… both US and World) The End

49 Enlightenment Philosophers vs
Enlightenment Philosophers vs. Scientific Thinkers of Scientific Revolution ** was after social contract… add

50 Spread of Enlightenment Ideas
** was after Catherine II / Catherine the Great… add

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