Presentation on theme: "World Studies: The Enlightenment Mrs. Short Hilliard Davidson High School Ch. 8.1-8.3."— Presentation transcript:
World Studies: The Enlightenment Mrs. Short Hilliard Davidson High School Ch
A SHORT Time to Ponder How could new technology or knowledge completely change peoples’ views on the world? – What could be something that would completely change your view on the world?
The Scientific Revolution Chapter 8.1 Occurred 17 th and 18 th centuries Produced new theories about the structure of the universe and humankind’s relationship to it Witnessed first age of global warfare – 7 Years War Fought in Europe, North America and India
The Scientific Revolution Examples – Significance?
New Languages New (OLD) Languages Examples: Greek and Latin – Significance: Opposing Points of View New Language of Mathematics Significance?
Examples – Significance: seen as the key to Navigation Military science geography Mathematics
Geocentric Geocentric – Earth-centered; a system of planetary motion in which the sun, moon and other planets revolve around the earth
Heliocentric Heliocentric – sun-centered; the suystem of the universe in which the Earth and planets revolve around the sun
Ptolemy vs. Copernicus Similarities? Differences?
Universal Law of Gravitation universal law of gravitation – one of Newton’s three rules of motion; it explains that planetary bodies continue in elliptical orbits around the sun because every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity
Rationalism Rationalism – a system of thought expounded by Rene Descartes based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge
Scientific Method Scientific method – a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence that was crucial to the evolution of science in the modern world
Inductive Reasoning inductive reasoning – the doctrine that scientists should proceed from the particular to the general by making systematic observations and carefully organized experiments to test hypothesis or theories, a process that will lead to correct general principles
Galileo Galilei 3 Important Discoveries: (mountains on moon; four moons around Jupiter; sun spots) – Conclusion: Planets/moon/etc. are Solid (not heavenly bodies of light) Church’s Reaction?
Johannes Kepler German mathematician – Provided information against Ptolemaic system Kepler’s 1 st Law: movements not circular elliptical (egg shaped)
Isaac Newton Kinda a big deal 3 Laws of Motion Universal law of gravitation Implication: universe worked like one huge, regulated, uniform machine that worked according to natural laws
Margaret Cavendish “We have no power at all over natural causes and effects… for man is but a small part, his powers are but particulars of Nature, and he cannot have a supreme and absolute power.” – Cavendish, Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy How do her ideas differ from others of the time?
Rene Descartes (Day-KAHRT) French philosopher “I think, therefore I am.” – Descartes, Discourse on Method, 1637 mind and matter father of rationalism
Francis Bacon English Philosopher Scientific method Inductive reasoning Believed “human power” could be used to “conquer nature in action”
A SHORT Time to Ponder Influence of Scientific Breakthroughs Influence? Changes in Worldview?
The Ideas of the Enlightenment Ch. 8.2
Reason Reason – the application of the scientific method to an understanding of all life – Natural law – Progress – Better society – hope
John Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding – tabula rasa (blank mind) – Sided with nurture in nature vs. nurture debate – Create ideal environment, and people will change for the better a priori vs. a posteriori
Philosophe philosophe – French for “philosopher”; applied to all intellectuals during the Enlightenment
Separation of Powers Charles-Louis de Seondat, the baron de Montesquieu: Separation of powers – a form of government in which the executive, legislative, and judicial branches limit and control each other through a system of checks and balances
Voltaire Real name: Francois-Marie Aurouet Parisian (from Paris) Criticized Christianity Believed in religious tolerance (fought against religious intolerance in France Support Deism
Deism Deism – an 18 th century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law – Based on a Newtonian world machine – Championed by Voltaire
Laissez-Faire Laissez-faire – the concept that the state should not impose government regulations, but should leave the economy alone
Types of Authority authority - the power to determine, adjudicate, or otherwise settle issues or disputes; jurisdiction; the right to control, command, or determine legitimate - in accordance with established rules, principles, or standards types of legitimate authority: 1.traditional authority: Power legitimized by respect for long-established cultural patterns. 2.charismatic authority: Power legitimized by extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion and obedience. 3.rational-legal authority: Also known as bureaucratic authority, is when power is legitimized by legally enacted rules and regulations such as governments.
Social Contract Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Social contract – the concept that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will and all individuals should be forced to abide by it since it represents what is best for the entire community
Isaac Newton Influence on Enlightenment Philosophers Believed everything was like a giant world machine; the world operates according to natural laws that could be uncovered though systematic investigation
Encylopedia Compiled by Diderot – Purpose: “change the general way of thinking” Why do you think it was so influential?
Enlightenment on Religion natural law - an ethical belief or system of beliefs supposed to be inherent in human nature and discoverable by reason rather than revelation (diminishes church power) Spread of literacy and knowledge diminishes church authority
Enlightenment on the Role of Women Mary Wollstonecraft: – A Vindication of the Rights of Women Pointed out the hypocrisy of the men: – Arbitrary (at one’s discretion; random) power of monarchs over MEN = wrong – Women should OBEY men = right
Salons Salons – the elegant urban drawing rooms where, in the 18 th century, writers, artists, aristocrats, government officials and wealthy middle- class people gathered to discuss the ideas of the philosophes
Enlightenment on the Arts Literature – Literacy (the ability to read) increased – Realistic novels became popular Architecture – Modeled on Italian Baroque style of 1500s – Palace of Louis XIV at Versailles (VER-SIGH) Rococo art Music – Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (classical music)
Rococo Rococo – an artistic style that replaced baroque in the 1730s; it was highly secular, emphasizing grace, charm and gentle action François Boucher was a French painter noted for his romantic, pastoral and mythological scenes. His work embodies the frivolity and sensuousness of the rococo style. He created hundreds of paintings, decorative boudoir panels, tapestry designs, theater designs, and book illustrations. He designed for the Beauvais tapestry works and in 1755 became director of the Gobelins tapestries.
Music Classical Music – Joseph Haydn The Creation The Season – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart The Marriage of Figaro The Magic Flute Don Giovanni
Enlightened Absolutism and the Balance of Power Ch. 8.3
Enlightened Absolutism enlightened absolutism – a system in which rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers
Balance of Power 18 th century philosophers believe that it was better for the nations to have similar amounts of power. – Do you think this would be a good thing or a bad thing?
Successor Successor – on that follows, especially one who takes over a throne, title, estate or office
Frederick William I (Prussia) By end of reign in 1740, doubled size of army – 4 th largest army 1.France 2.Russia 3.Austria 4.Prusia Enlightened: – Maintained a highly efficient bureaucracy Not Enlightened “One must serve the king with life and limb, … and surrender everything except salvation. The latter is reserved for God. But everything else must be mine
Frederick II / Frederick the Great (Prussia) Enlightened: – Was on of the best educated monarchs – Abolished the use of torture except in treason and murder cases – Granted limited freedom of speech and press, and religious toleration Not Enlightened: – Kept rigid (inflexible, unyielding) social structure intact and avoided any addition reforms
Empress Maria Theresa (Austria) Mother of Joseph II Enlightened: – Improved the conditions of serfs Not Enlightened: – Was not open to reforms called for by the Philosophes
Joseph II (Austria) Enlightened: – “I have made Philoophy the lawmaker of my empire>” – Abolished serfdom – Eliminated the death penalty – Established equality of all before the law Not Enlightened: – Largely failed in endeavors/unpopular – Reforms undid almost all of his reforms
Catherine II / Catherine the Great (Russia) successor of Peter the Great ruled Russia from – Expanded Russian territory (50% of Poland) Enlightened: – Intelligent – Familiar with the works of the philosophes – Considered the idea of a new law code that would recognize the principle of equality of all people in the eyes of the law Not Enlightened: – Did not implement reforms – Favored the landed nobility worse conditions for Russian peasants AFTER Rebellion: took stronger measures against peasant and expanded serfdom
7 Years War Began 1740 over succession to the Austrian throne; Maria Theresa came to throne Frederick II of Prussia invaded during confusion Watch videos on Web site (Crash Course… both US and World) The End
Enlightenment Philosophers vs. Scientific Thinkers of Scientific Revolution ** was after social contract… add
Spread of Enlightenment Ideas ** was after Catherine II / Catherine the Great… add