Presentation on theme: "Wulf, G. (2007). Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 10 years of research. E-Journal Bewegung und Training, 1, 4–14. Wulf, G., Höß, M. &"— Presentation transcript:
Wulf, G. (2007). Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 10 years of research. E-Journal Bewegung und Training, 1, 4–14. Wulf, G., Höß, M. & Prinz, W. (1998). Instructions for Motor Learning: Differential Effects of Internal Versus External Focus of Attention. Journal of motor behavior, 30, 169–179. Wulf, G., Shea, C. & Park, J. (2001). Attention and motor performance: Preferences for and advantages of an external focus. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72, 335–344. Lohse, K. R., Sherwood, D. E. & Healy, A. F. (2010). How changing the focus of attention affects performance, kinematics, and electromyography in dart throwing. Human movement science, 29, 542–555. Zachry, T., Wulf, G., Mercer, J. & Bezodis, N. (2005). Increased movement accuracy and reduced EMG activity as the result of adopting an external focus of attention. Brain research bulletin, 67, 304–309. 1.PERFORMANCE OUTCOME MEASURE X and Y coordinates of the ball’s final resting position will be measured from the centre of the target Radial Error (RE) and Variable Radial Error (VRE) will be Calculated based on the final position of each putt Data will be provided for accuracy and consistency of putting performance 2.KINEMATIC MEASURES Derived from the displacement of the putter head in the frontal plane The amplitude of the swing, movement time, velocity, time to peak velocity, acceleration and time to peak acceleration of the club head will be calculated 3.ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES Collected via Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the rectified EMG signal and % Max Voluntary Isometric Contraction Recorded from the onset of club movement until 100ms after contact with the ball Provides a measure of overall changes in muscular activity for extensor carpi radialis & tibialis anterior between each of the focus conditions Combination of behavioural and physiological outcome measures Essential to understanding changes in performance outcomes when varying attentional foci conditions Inclusion of two internal focus conditions Previous research has only compared multiple external focus conditions Whole body automaticity or effects specific to location of task instruction? Future considerations for coaching and rehabilitation Focus of Attention During Skilled and Unskilled Golf Putting INTRODUCTION ANTICIPATED SIGNIFICANCE Valerie Pelleck & Steven Passmore University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba OBJECTIVES 1. To replicate previous findings involving varying task instructions and performance outcomes (accuracy). 2.To determine if movement economy and kinematic performance is affected by task instructions. 3.To determine if the electrophysiological activity is differentially affected by task instructions. METHOD ONE UNIVERSITY. MANY FUTURES. REFERENCES DEPENDENT VARIABLES 12 skilled golfers (handicap <8) 12 unskilled golfers (handicap >20 or play <3 rounds/year) All right-handed, conventional putting stance & grip, recruited from general public & Golf Manitoba Tip of putter fitted with one Infrared Emitting Diode (IRED), to track movement of the club head in the frontal plane by the Optotrak motion capture system Electrodes placed on extensor carpi radialis and tibialis anterior for EMG analysis All participants will wear liquid crystal occlusion goggles, triggered to become occluded as soon as the ball is struck to prevent knowledge of results 4 focus conditions for each participant No Specific Focus (putt as you normally would) External (focus on the hole) Internal-Movement (focus on your hands gripping the club and your elbows staying extended) Internal-Stance (focus on distributing your weight evenly through both feet) 10 putts in each focus condition x 2 distances = 80 putts total DATA ANALYSIS Mixed Model ANOVA design 2 groups (skilled, less-skilled) x 2 distances (3m, 5m) x 4 focus of attention conditions (no focus, external, internal-movement, internal-stance) for analysis of accuracy and kinematic measures 2 groups (skilled, less-skilled) x 2 locations (upper extremity, lower extremity) x 2 distances (3m, 5m) x 4 focus of attention conditions (no focus, external, internal-movement, internal- stance) for electrophysiological measures The effects of attentional focus while performing motor tasks is an emerging area of research in the field of motor learning (Wulf, 2007). A large amount of anecdotal evidence suggests that “self- attention” while performing a motor skill can disrupt performance, especially in a skill that is well-practiced and familiar (Wulf, Höß, & Prinz, 1998). The focus of attention adopted by an individual can be defined as internal or external in nature. An internal focus of attention refers to task instructions or feedback that relate directly to an individual’s own body movement. An external focus of attention relates to the effects of those movements on the environment or the apparatus being used to complete a task (Wulf et al., 1998). The Constrained Action Hypothesis (Wulf, Shea & Park, 2001) attempts to explain the benefits of an external focus of attention by stating that when individuals focus on their own body performing an action, individual s may override the automatic processes that would otherwise take control of the movement. This may be responsible for the coordination and automatic reflex disruption found in the literaturewhen an internal focus of attention is adopted. Much of the research surrounding focus of attention has been primarily outcome-based and has included various measures of accuracy (Wulf, 2007). More recent studies have included an analysis of kinematic (Lohse, Sherwood & Healy, 2010) and electrophysiological effects (Zachry, Wulf, Mercer & Bezodis, 2005) in an attempt to explain changes in performance under varying attentional focus conditions. microswitch (under ball) 6.7m (plywood) 1.2m 3m 5m reed switch (starting position for club) d=10.8cm (ring of 8 LED lights) INTRODUCTION EMG analysis of extensor carpi radialis EMG analysis of tibialis anterior
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