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Strength Concepts. What is Strength? Classically, strength is defined as the ability of a given muscle or group of muscles to generate muscular force.

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Presentation on theme: "Strength Concepts. What is Strength? Classically, strength is defined as the ability of a given muscle or group of muscles to generate muscular force."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strength Concepts

2 What is Strength? Classically, strength is defined as the ability of a given muscle or group of muscles to generate muscular force under specific conditions (Siff, 1999). Classically, strength is defined as the ability of a given muscle or group of muscles to generate muscular force under specific conditions (Siff, 1999).

3 Fundamental Principle of Strength Training All strength increase is initiated by neuromuscular stimulation (Fleck & Kramer, 1997). All strength increase is initiated by neuromuscular stimulation (Fleck & Kramer, 1997).

4 More Definitions……. Functional Muscular Action (functional effect) Functional Muscular Action (functional effect) Muscle Hypertrophy (structural effect) Muscle Hypertrophy (structural effect) Functional Resistance Training Functional Resistance Training Structural Resistance Training Structural Resistance Training

5 Types of Strength Training Fundamental Strength Movements Fundamental Strength Movements Isometrics, Isotonics, Variable Resistance, Isometrics, Isotonics, Variable Resistance, Isokinetics, Eccentric Isokinetics, Eccentric Specific Strength Training Specific Strength Training Hypertrophy, Strength, Speed-strength, Hypertrophy, Strength, Speed-strength, Strength-endurance, endurance Strength-endurance, endurance

6 Basic Periodization Principles (Bompa, 2001) Anatomical Adaptation: Anatomical Adaptation: Foundation on which the other phases of training are based. Progressive adaptation of an athletes body. Higher volume of training with low to medium loads to aid integrity not only muscle tissue, but ligaments, tendons, bone, and joint capsules

7 Basic Periodization Principles Hypertrophy Hypertrophy Enlargement in muscle size, through increasing the cross-sectional area of muscle. Unlike bodybuilding, hypertrophy training for selected sports focuses mainly on increasing the size of prime movers. Enlargement in muscle size, through increasing the cross-sectional area of muscle. Unlike bodybuilding, hypertrophy training for selected sports focuses mainly on increasing the size of prime movers.

8 Basic Periodization Principles Maximum Strength Maximum Strength Develop highest level of force possible to aid in creating sport specific strength Develop highest level of force possible to aid in creating sport specific strength

9 Basic Periodization Principles Power Power Ability of neuromuscular system to produce the greatest possible force in the shortest period of time Ability of neuromuscular system to produce the greatest possible force in the shortest period of time Fast, ballistic application of force. Fast, ballistic application of force. Load – standard weight of the implements Load – standard weight of the implements Repetitions discontinue as movement speed declines Repetitions discontinue as movement speed declines

10 Physiology of Movement Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Nervous System Nervous System Muscle Muscle

11 Connective Tissue Role: passively stabilize the joints, facilitating contact between parts and absorbing shock Role: passively stabilize the joints, facilitating contact between parts and absorbing shock Tendons, ligaments, joint capsules only display significant adaptation and hypertrophy after several weeks or months of progressive loading (McDonagh & Davies, 1984) Tendons, ligaments, joint capsules only display significant adaptation and hypertrophy after several weeks or months of progressive loading (McDonagh & Davies, 1984)

12 Nervous System Neuromuscular system is fundamental to all training (Siff, 2000) Neuromuscular system is fundamental to all training (Siff, 2000) Major adaptation is developing the ability to recruit all motor units needed to perform a task Major adaptation is developing the ability to recruit all motor units needed to perform a task Neural adaptations make up for most of strength gains in first 2-8 weeks of strength training Neural adaptations make up for most of strength gains in first 2-8 weeks of strength training

13 Muscle Highly innervated and very well nourished Highly innervated and very well nourished Muscle tissue adapts much quicker to resistance training than does connective tissue, thus an overemphasis on muscle strengthening can compromise connective tissue, and produce a complex that is more prone to injury Muscle tissue adapts much quicker to resistance training than does connective tissue, thus an overemphasis on muscle strengthening can compromise connective tissue, and produce a complex that is more prone to injury

14 Program Characteristics for Basic Goals in Resistance Training 1 Rep Max (RM)Strength *Choice of exercise,the specific movement patterns, and types of muscle action *Exercises to be emphasized are performed early in training session *HEAVY resistances (<6RM) *Mod to Long Rests (>2m) *Mod to High # of sets (4-10) for primary specific exercises (the squat), low to mod # of sets (1-3) for assistance exercises

15 Power Multi-joint structural movements (Oly type exercises) Eccentric actions not emphasized Multi-joint structural movements (Oly type exercises) Eccentric actions not emphasized Performed early in Training Session Performed early in Training Session High-Intensity (<10RM) High-Intensity (<10RM) Rarely more than 5 reps Rarely more than 5 reps Moderate to long rest periods (>2m) Moderate to long rest periods (>2m) Mod to High # of sets (4-10) Mod to High # of sets (4-10)

16 Hypertrophy Large variety of exercises Large variety of exercises Large variety of exercise order Large variety of exercise order Concentric and eccentric actions Concentric and eccentric actions Moderate to High intensity (6-12RM) Moderate to High intensity (6-12RM) Higher number of reps Higher number of reps Short rest periods (<1.5m) Short rest periods (<1.5m) High total # of sets/ muscle or group (>3) High total # of sets/ muscle or group (>3)

17 Muscular Endurance Choice of exercise needed for specific sport Choice of exercise needed for specific sport Low intensity (12-20RM) Low intensity (12-20RM) Moderate rest periods (2-3m) for long rep sets (>20) and short rest periods (45sec) for lower rep sets (12-19) Moderate rest periods (2-3m) for long rep sets (>20) and short rest periods (45sec) for lower rep sets (12-19) Moderate # of sets (2-3) Moderate # of sets (2-3)

18 Variable Strength Power Hyper- trophy Endurance Load (% of 1 RM)80 - 10070 - 10060 - 8040 - 60 Repetitions per set1 - 5 8 - 1525 - 60 Sets per exercise3 - 5 4 - 82 - 4 Rest between sets (mins)2 - 6 2 - 51 -2 Duration (secs per set)5 - 104 - 820 - 6080 - 150 Speed per rep (% of max)60 - 10090 - 10060 - 906 - 80 Training sessions per week3 - 6 5 - 78 -14

19 Designing a Program Needs Analysis Needs Analysis What phase of training is the athlete in? What phase of training is the athlete in? What muscles need to be trained? What muscles need to be trained? What energy sources will be utilized? What energy sources will be utilized? What movements are related to performance? What movements are related to performance?

20 Other Considerations Trainability Trainability Neuromuscular Efficiency Neuromuscular Efficiency Biomechanical Efficiency Biomechanical Efficiency Psychological Factors Psychological Factors Injury and Fear of Injury Injury and Fear of Injury Fatigue Fatigue

21 Periodization Models Conjugated vs. Complex & Rehabilitation Conjugated vs. Complex & Rehabilitation

22 Complex Training The concurrent and parallel training of several motor abilities with the intention of producing multi-faceted development of physical fitness. The concurrent and parallel training of several motor abilities with the intention of producing multi-faceted development of physical fitness. May be appropriate for lower level athletes, but may have negative influence on highly trained individuals May be appropriate for lower level athletes, but may have negative influence on highly trained individuals

23 Conjugated Training Extension of Complex Training focusing on the elite athlete. Extension of Complex Training focusing on the elite athlete. Overlapping of several different training variables (hypertrophy,strength,etc.), each of which has a different training objective. Overlapping of several different training variables (hypertrophy,strength,etc.), each of which has a different training objective. At any time, a different proportion of each type of training is provided, but at no stage is there only one type of training. At any time, a different proportion of each type of training is provided, but at no stage is there only one type of training.

24 Advantages of Complex Simple design Simple design Effective for beginning clients or athletes Effective for beginning clients or athletes Useful for athletes training 1 or 2 days/ week Useful for athletes training 1 or 2 days/ week

25 Advantages of Conjugated Produces a specific training effect Produces a specific training effect Preserves magnitude of training effect Preserves magnitude of training effect More effective for highly trained More effective for highly trained

26 Points to Remember! The long term use of the same training variable, even if volume is increased, will not increase ones level of special fitness and will decrease the existing level of maximum strength… The long term use of the same training variable, even if volume is increased, will not increase ones level of special fitness and will decrease the existing level of maximum strength…

27 Rehabilitative/Corrective Exercise Imperative to strengthen integrity of connective tissue Imperative to strengthen integrity of connective tissue 4 Phases of Rehabilitation 4 Phases of Rehabilitation Quality of Movement Biomechanical limitations Quality of Movement Biomechanical limitations Transfer to sport specific Transfer to sport specific

28 Concepts for Athletic Trainers Understanding of Fundamentals Understanding of Fundamentals Creating a Continuum in Rehabilitation Creating a Continuum in Rehabilitation Increased knowledge base = increased marketability Increased knowledge base = increased marketability


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