2 What is Strength?Classically, strength is defined as the ability of a given muscle or group of muscles to generate muscular force under specific conditions (Siff, 1999).
3 Fundamental Principle of Strength Training All strength increase is initiated by neuromuscular stimulation (Fleck & Kramer, 1997).
4 More Definitions……. Functional Muscular Action (functional effect) Muscle Hypertrophy (structural effect)Functional Resistance TrainingStructural Resistance Training
5 Types of Strength Training Fundamental Strength MovementsIsometrics, Isotonics, Variable Resistance,Isokinetics, EccentricSpecific Strength TrainingHypertrophy, Strength, Speed-strength,Strength-endurance, endurance
6 Basic Periodization Principles (Bompa, 2001) Anatomical Adaptation:Foundation on which the other phases of training are based. Progressive adaptation of an athlete’s body.Higher volume of training with low to medium loads to aid integrity not only muscle tissue, but ligaments, tendons, bone, and joint capsules
7 Basic Periodization Principles HypertrophyEnlargement in muscle size, through increasing the cross-sectional area of muscle. Unlike bodybuilding, hypertrophy training for selected sports focuses mainly on increasing the size of prime movers.
8 Basic Periodization Principles Maximum StrengthDevelop highest level of force possible to aid in creating sport specific strength
9 Basic Periodization Principles PowerAbility of neuromuscular system to produce the greatest possible force in the shortest period of timeFast, ballistic application of force.Load – standard weight of the implementsRepetitions discontinue as movement speed declines
10 Physiology of Movement Connective TissueNervous SystemMuscle
11 Connective TissueRole: passively stabilize the joints, facilitating contact between parts and absorbing shockTendons, ligaments, joint capsules only display significant adaptation and hypertrophy after several weeks or months of progressive loading (McDonagh & Davies, 1984)
12 Nervous SystemNeuromuscular system is fundamental to all training (Siff, 2000)Major adaptation is developing the ability to recruit all motor units needed to perform a taskNeural adaptations make up for most of strength gains in first 2-8 weeks of strength training
13 Muscle Highly innervated and very well nourished Muscle tissue adapts much quicker to resistance training than does connective tissue, thus an overemphasis on muscle strengthening can compromise connective tissue, and produce a complex that is more prone to injury
14 Program Characteristics for Basic Goals in Resistance Training 1 Rep Max (RM)Strength*Choice of exercise,the specific movement patterns, and types of muscle action*Exercises to be emphasized are performed early in training session*HEAVY resistances (<6RM)*Mod to Long Rests (>2m)*Mod to High # of sets (4-10) for primary specific exercises (the squat), low to mod # of sets (1-3) for assistance exercises
15 PowerMulti-joint structural movements (Oly type exercises) Eccentric actions not emphasizedPerformed early in Training SessionHigh-Intensity (<10RM)Rarely more than 5 repsModerate to long rest periods (>2m)Mod to High # of sets (4-10)
16 Hypertrophy Large variety of exercises Large variety of exercise order Concentric and eccentric actionsModerate to High intensity (6-12RM)Higher number of repsShort rest periods (<1.5m)High total # of sets/ muscle or group (>3)
17 Muscular Endurance Choice of exercise needed for specific sport Low intensity (12-20RM)Moderate rest periods (2-3m) for long rep sets (>20) and short rest periods (45sec) for lower rep sets (12-19)Moderate # of sets (2-3)
18 Variable Power Endurance StrengthPowerHyper-trophyEnduranceLoad (% of 1 RM)Repetitions per set1 - 58 - 15Sets per exercise3 - 54 - 82 - 4Rest between sets (mins)2 - 62 - 51 -2Duration (secs per set)5 - 10Speed per rep (% of max)6 - 80Training sessions per week3 - 65 - 78 -14
19 Designing a Program Needs Analysis What phase of training is the athlete in?What muscles need to be trained?What energy sources will be utilized?What movements are related to performance?
20 Other Considerations Trainability Neuromuscular Efficiency Biomechanical EfficiencyPsychological FactorsInjury and Fear of InjuryFatigue
21 Conjugated vs. Complex & Rehabilitation Periodization ModelsConjugated vs. Complex & Rehabilitation
22 Complex TrainingThe concurrent and parallel training of several motor abilities with the intention of producing multi-faceted development of physical fitness.May be appropriate for lower level athletes, but may have negative influence on highly trained individuals
23 Conjugated TrainingExtension of Complex Training focusing on the elite athlete.Overlapping of several different training variables (hypertrophy,strength,etc.), each of which has a different training objective.At any time, a different proportion of each type of training is provided, but at no stage is there only one type of training.
24 Advantages of Complex Simple design Effective for beginning clients or athletesUseful for athletes training 1 or 2 days/ week
25 Advantages of Conjugated Produces a specific training effectPreserves magnitude of training effectMore effective for highly trained
26 Points to Remember!The long term use of the same training variable, even if volume is increased, will not increase one’s level of special fitness and will decrease the existing level of maximum strength…
27 Rehabilitative/Corrective Exercise Imperative to strengthen integrity of connective tissue4 Phases of RehabilitationQuality of Movement Biomechanical limitationsTransfer to sport specific
28 Concepts for Athletic Trainers Understanding of FundamentalsCreating a Continuum in RehabilitationIncreased knowledge base = increased marketability