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Nels Rydberg, MS Assistant Coach University of Portland.

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Presentation on theme: "Nels Rydberg, MS Assistant Coach University of Portland."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nels Rydberg, MS Assistant Coach University of Portland

2  Background Information Motor Behavior Research  Focus of Attention Choose your words carefully  Observational Learning Two for the price of one  Mindset What are they thinking?  Ideas and Questions

3  Motor behavior research Learning vs performance  Retention test Open vs closed skills  Generalizability  Transfer test  Volleyball skills

4  Internal focus: on body movements  External focus: on the movement effect Not related to visual focus Wulf, G. (2013). Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 years. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6(1), Wulf, G. (2007). Attention and motor skill learning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

5  Initial findings Wulf, G., Höß, M., & Prinz, W. (1998). Instructions for motor learning: Differential effects of internal versus external focus of attention. Journal of Motor Behavior, 30, Pressure exerted on platform vs feet exerting the pressure Markers on board horizontal rather than feet horizontal  Retention (and later, transfer) had no instructions, internal or external

6  Movement effectiveness Accuracy, consistency, balance  Movement efficiency Muscular activity, force production, cardiovascular responses  Higher skill level is achieved sooner  Benefits performance and learning

7  Measurements Balance, accuracy, muscular activity, maximum force production, speed and endurance, movement kinematics and kinetics (whole-body coordination patterns optimized)  Tasks Golf shots, volleyball serve, kicks, free throws, weight lifting, throwing accuracy and form, jumping, sprinting, agility, swimming, rowing

8  “…even a single instructional cue can impact whole-body coordination” (Wulf, 2013, p. 78). Why does this work?  “Self-invoking trigger”  Negative effects of self-consciousness  Mindset?

9  In your gym Serving  Target, point of impact on the ball Passing  Target, trajectory Blocking  Attacker’s shoulders, points to reach for Reading and external focus

10 Beckmann, J., Gröpel, P., & Ehrlenspiel, F. (2013). Preventing motor skill failure through hemisphere- specific priming: Cases from choking under pressure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3),  In short Right brain = automated behavior Squeeze left hand to activate right hemisphere

11 Shea, C. H., Wulf, G., & Whitacre, C. (1999). Enhancing training efficiency and effectiveness through the use of dyad training. Journal of Motor Behavior, 31, Shea, C. H., Wright, D. L., Wulf, G., & Whitacre, C. (2000). Physical and observational practice afford unique learning opportunities. Journal of Motor Behavior, 32(1), Form of mental training  Model does not have to be an expert

12  Experiment 1 Physical vs observational practice  Retention  physical > observational > control  Transfer  physical = observational > control  Better able to apply parameters and strategies

13  Experiment 2 Dyads: “…participants develop some form of interactive relationship during practice…” (Shea, et al., 2000, p. 34) Physical vs combined (physical and observational) practice  Acquisition  Physical = combined  Retention  Physical = combined > control

14 Physical vs combined (cont.)  Transfer  Combined > physical > control  Physical deteriorated in transfer, combined did not Possible explanations  What worked vs what did not  Mental processing that cannot be done during physical practice  Social interactions including motivation and social comparison  Mindset?

15  Benefits and application Increased learning efficiency  Space, equipment, time Decreased fatigue and chance of injury/overuse  Effective use of rest intervals Teach your players to observe each other Design drills that facilitate observational learning

16 Granados, C., & Wulf, G. (2007). Enhancing motor learning through dyad practice: Contributions of observation and dialogue. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 78(3), Observational practice enhanced learning regardless of dialogue

17  More specifically Enhanced expectancies Conceptions of ability Self-confidence Social-cognitive Positive affect Intrinsic motivation

18  Self-Determination Theory (SDT) Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, Basic needs  Autonomy, competence, relatedness  Intrinsic motivation, positive affect

19  Feedback after successful trials Increased intrinsic motivation and self- confidence  Catch someone doing something well and tell them about it  Trip on the curb, shank one pass Chiviacowsky, S., & Wulf, G. (2002). Self-controlled feedback: Does it enhance learning because performers get feedback when they need it? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73,

20 Badami, R., VaezMousavi, M., Wulf, G., & Namazizadeh, M. (2011). Feedback after good trials enhances intrinsic motivation. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82, Badami, R., VaezMousavi, M., Namazizadeh, M., & Wulf, G. (2012). Feedback after good versus poor trials: Differential effects on self-confidence and activation. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83(2),

21  Acquirable skill > inherent ability Incremental theorists > entity theorists Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2009). Conceptions of ability affect motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 41(5),  Normative feedback “Above average” performance Lewthwaite, R., & Wulf, G. (2010). Social-comparative feedback affects motor skill learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(4),

22  Performance under pressure Throwing accuracy McKay, B., Lewthwaite, R., & Wulf, G. (2012). Enhanced expectancies improve performance under pressure. Frontiers in Psychology, 3:8. doi: /fpsyg

23  Experienced, trained athletes  Increased physiological efficiency Stoate, I., Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2012). Enhanced expectancies improve movement efficiency in runners. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(8),

24  Why? Automaticity vs conscious control processes  How? Instructions or feedback should focus on learners’ improvements or effort invested in practice  Ideas? Feedback after good trials Self-controlled feedback  Establish the proper mindset

25  Background Information Motor Behavior Research  Focus of Attention Choose your words carefully  Observational Learning Two for the price of one  Mindset What are they thinking?  Ideas and Questions

26  Sharing of ideas Focus of attention Observational practice Mindset  Questions

27 Nels Rydberg

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