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Presentation on theme: "LANGUAGE LEARNERS IN CLASSROOMS"— Presentation transcript:


2 LOOKING AT LEARNERS Language classroom are to facilitate language learning, so learner behaviour in classrooms is of paramount importance. Not all leaner behaviour is visible or open to study [ the actual learning process in the mind], so research concentrates on what is able to be seen and described. Aspects of learner behaviour that may be studied include: Learner language; developmental features. Learner Language. Interaction. Classroom tasks. Strategies.

3 Learner Language Development.
Until recently it was assumed that a simple one-to- one relationship existed between what is taught and what is learned: given learners with appropriate intelligent and motivation, and teachers with the proper skill, then teaching would result in learning. However more recent studies in SLA, learning styles and preferences, sociocultural and affective issues of language development, have shown this belief to be rather naïve.

4 Learners language develops in a fairly linear progression,
Production of single words, phrases and formulae (formulae are chunks learned as one word together, such as, hello how are you, or what’s your name?) Production of simple sentences, or strings of words, following regular word order rules., i.e. subject + verb + object , such as , I like rice. Ability to identify the beginning and end of such sentences/strings, and ability to shift elements around within the sentence/string.

5 Language in the Classroom.
Asking whether instruction makes a difference is a bit like asking a doctor if medical treatment does any good. Often the instruction is the students only source of the L2, where the L2 has no social place, i.e. a learner learning English in a country where it is never used in public.

6 Interaction and the Language of Classrooms
To look at language interaction that occurs in classrooms. IN most face to face conversation people interact with each other and adapt what they are saying to each others responses and reactions. Some situations may give one participant a more directive role than the other[s].

7 An Exchange Teacher: Can you tell me why you eat all that food? Yes.
Pupil: To keep you strong. T. To keep you strong. Yes. To keep you strong. Why do you want to be strong? Initiation. Teacher takes initiative by requiring something of the student, though the Question: This move starts the exchange: the teacher acts as leader. Response. The student does whatever is required, here answering the question by saying ‘to keep you strong’; So the move responds to the teachers initiation: the student acts as follower. Feedback. The teacher does not go straight on to the next initiation but announces whether the student is right or wrong.’

8 Language in the Language Teaching Classroom.
Are language teaching classroom different from other classrooms? In foreign language classroom often 60-70% of the language used comes from the teacher, so a massive amount of the language heard by the student comes from the teacher. The unique aspect of language classrooms is that language is involved in two ways: The organisation/control of the classroom takes place through language, and language is also the actual subject matter of the lesson.

9 Authentic and Non-Authentic Language in the Classroom.
Another aspect is authentic and non-authentic language in the classroom. A typical dialogue from a beginner level may be. Hi. Are you a new student? Yes, I’m Claudia. What’s your name? Tom. Nice to meet you, Tom. This is non-authentic language especially constructed for its language teaching potential, topic, grammar, vocabulary, etc

appropriate.. the constraints of the teaching situation and of the teacher themselves.. Classroom interaction is the interaction between the teacher and learners and amongst the learners in the classroom. Studies focus on the language used by the teacher and learners, the interaction generated and its effect on learning.

Research on the observable aspects of classroom interaction look at three main aspects: Input, interaction, and output. Input. Input refers to the language used by the teacher. Output. Refers to the language produced by learners. Interaction. Refers to the interrelationship between input and output, with no necessary assumption of a linear cause and effect relationship between the two.

12 REFERENCES McDonough, S Strategy and Skill in Learning a Foreign Language. Edward Arnold. McDonough, S Applied Linguistics in Language Education. Arnold. Tudor, I Learner-Centredness in Language Education. Cambridge University Press Tudor, I The Dynamics of the Language Classroom. Cambridge University Press. Kondo, D. & Ying-Ling, Y Strategies for Coping with Language Anxiety: the case of students of English in Japan. ELT Journal. 58. July. P Cook, V Second Language learning and Language Teaching. London. Skehan, P A Cognitive Approach to Language Learning. Oxford University Press. Skehan, P Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. Edward Arnold. Slimani, A Evaluation of Classroom Interaction. In Alderson, J. and A. Beretta. Evaluating Second language Education. Cambridge. Tsui, A Introduction to Classroom Interaction. Harmondsworth. Oxford, R Language Learning Strategies Around the World: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. University of Hawaii at Manoa.

13 REFERENCES 2 Oxford, R Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher should Know. Heinle & Heinle. Nunan, D Understanding Language Classrooms. Prentice Hall. Dornyei, Z Attitudes, Orientations and Motivation in Language Learning. Blackwell. Sinclair, J. & R. Coulthard Towards an Analysis of Discourse: the English used by Teachers and Pupils Oxford Chaudron, C Second Language Classrooms. CUP. Malahmah-Thomas, A Classroom Interaction. OUP. Oxford, R Teaching and Researching. Language Learning Strategies. Longman. Naiman, N. et al The Good Language Learner. Multilingual Matters. Long Does second language instruction make a difference? TESOL Quarterly 17/


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