Looking at human activities using the methods of science Observation Measurement Experiments Laws
Last lesson with Mr G looked at.. Paradigms What are they? A typical example of something A collective or agreed way of: –looking at things –explaining things –understanding things Where do they come from? How are they made? Are they the ‘Laws’ that we end up with?
Laws Where do they come from? Observation of the behaviour of humans to see patterns of cause and effect (stress take risks) or correlations (black cats luck) overcoming ethical problems and ‘observer effect’ Measure ‘units’ of human feelings usually through measurable behaviour (medals, pushing buttons, profit) Experiment by taking away confusing variables and study reactions of unsuspecting participants (volunteers, paid helpers, family/friends) Inductive reasoning leads to a conclusion about behaviour – a ‘law’ about how we/others act in certain situations
Laws We KNOW that when… Someone is feeling confident Told to do something by someone in a uniform Interest rates go down If one person yawns When we do 10 things right and 1 thing wrong …will happen They will be open to suggestions They will normally obey Inflation goes up Others soon follow People remember the 1 thing and forget the 10
Laws Do not confuse the natural process you go through to create YOUR laws to live by…. ….and the process human scientists (economists, psychologists etc) go through to create GENERAL laws What is the difference? Do the ‘laws’ work better for small or large numbers of people? Why? Why do the ‘laws’ sometimes work and sometimes not?
Laws How do you feel when someone does not follow a ‘law’ (they do not laugh, apologise, get out of your way, look at you…) Would you trust them? Is that fair – do you KNOW them? How much of what you ‘know’ about a person (stranger or not) is based on: what they actually say and do and how much on: what their ‘type’ will do (according to our ‘laws’?) Partners fitting the bill/me Portuguese/stereotyping/ age/skin colour/appearance/religious clothes Jumping to conclusions…Prejudice….
Laws Prejudice videos Can we use people’s reliance on ‘laws’ to our advantage? –Clothes –Speech –‘only 2,99’ –Plastic surgery –NLP –2, 4, 6, what are the next three numbers? –Conformational bias (people only look for evidence to prove themselves right)
Laws Where do our own ‘laws’ come from? –Experience based on our own Observation (addicted to watching others behaviour – novelas – movies – internet …) Measurement (trying to understand the reactions of others – too much/too little – see your parents/therapist for outside opinion) Experiments (on friends/family, love affairs, with internet ‘personalities’ – concern about lack of real consequences…) –Experts (they only work with the ‘law of large numbers’) Bankers, Psychologists, Marketing folk…. –Other people – the ‘mob’ – the large number of people Panic, Herding, Fashion, Slang…. Crazes: Tulips, South Sea Bubble, dot coms, Witches
Laws Do our ‘laws’ of ‘normal’ behaviour depend on: Time? Culture? –Should you finish all the food on your plate? –Are all toilets the same? –Should you point at people? –Are Brazilians welcoming & friendly and the British rather cold & rude? Religion? Family?Genetics? So are they ‘fixed’ like the laws of nature in Natural Sciences?
Laws If we live narrow lives….. …..we end up with fixed, simple laws about how others should behave We become bigots following dogma! I am right – you are wrong…. ….and if you are wrong, you must stupid… ….therefore I am better than you! People become afraid of difference – a ‘red-neck’! “You behave differently to me, so you are not to be trusted, and preferably you should be removed to stop me feeling uncomfortable” Who are the minorities victimised because of their differences?
How do we avoid being a narrow minded bigot? See life from another person’s perspective! Travel Read Arts – pictures, theatre, literature, films… Follow the news Debate/argue Get to understand the paradigms of others so that you can question your own and accept the alternatives others have.