Presentation on theme: "What is Psychology? Goal 1.1. 1. Be a critical thinker – ask questions. Believe nothing without examining the evidence. 2. Consider that often the answers."— Presentation transcript:
What is Psychology? Goal 1.1
1. Be a critical thinker – ask questions. Believe nothing without examining the evidence. 2. Consider that often the answers are “open ended” meaning that there may be no “right” or “wrong” answers. 3. Always be open minded. Use your psychological knowledge, but consider other ideas. 4. Nothing in Psychology is ever PROVED! It is theorized.
Why does he do that? Must be in a dysfunctional family Never learned to control his emotions Must be a sociopath Who’s pulling your strings? When we explain human actions in terms of beliefs, motives, love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology
When we explain human actions in terms of beliefs, motives, love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology Definition of Psychology: ◦ Scientific study of mental processes and behavior and how these are effected by internal processes and the environment
This means systematic and controlled study of human behavior with the hope of establi shing cause and effect
Attention, memory, emotion and attitudes (covert behaviors) Aggression, helping, sleeping (overt behaviors– can be measured)
No One Factor is to Blame!!! Biological Level focuses on genetics and physiology Cognitive Level focuses on mental processes like memory, thinking, perception and attention Sociocultural Level focuses on how environment and culture affect behavior or thinking
Gender is determined by ◦ Biology – hormones, genetic makeup (XX and XY chromosones ◦ Cognitive – we form mental representations (schema) of what it means to be a boy or girl and these guide our behavior. Gender stereotypes are formed this way. ◦ Socio-culture – we learn gender behavior by watching how other people of our own sex behave. Our culture and society also affect our roles and shape our views
Theory – an explanation for a psychological phenomenon ◦ A statement used to organize, summarize and explain observations ◦ Can be used to make predictions ◦ Not like laws of science ◦ Theories are probably, but not certain ◦ Always open to some degree of doubt
People are successful not because of talent, but because of hard work. If you have a fixed mindset, you are less likely to be successful than if you have a growth mindset Fixed mindset – You are born smart or not. I don’t want people to think I am dumb, so I won’t do something that I might fail at. I give up easily and consider effort to be a waste of time. If I have to work hard I must be dumb. I don’t like people to criticize me and
– You are born smart or not. I don’t want people to think I am dumb, so I won’t do something that I might fail at. I give up easily and consider effort to be a waste of time. If I have to work hard I must be dumb. I don’t like people to criticize me and ignore any of their dumb ideas. I feel threatened by the successf of others
Noone is born smart. You have to work at it. If I work hare enough I can do just about anything. I know I will make mistakes and fail every once in a while, but that’s ok. I learn by my mistakes I take criticism in stride. If the shoe fits, wear it! I am inspired by others success.
1. Does this theory correspond to real life? Try to evaluate it based on your own experiences. 2. To what extent does this theory offer insight into possible differences in terms of what people achieve in education, sport, or the arts?
When a researcher collects and analyzes data in order to investigate a psychological phenomenon It is research that can be observed and measured.
sPj0 sPj0 Carol Dweck: Discovering the importance of mindset (youtube) Carol Dweck: The effect of praise on mindset
1. Question assumptions and biases? 2. Evaluate available evidence 3. Consider alternative interpretations 4. Avoid emotional reasoning 5. Do not jump to oversimplified conclusions 6. Knows that plausible conclusions are based on evidence 7. Is willing to reassess conclusions if new information appears 8. Is able to tolerate some uncertainty.
1. Excellent Psychology students always (list 2) 2. How does common sense psychology differ from Psychology?