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HW #23 Donald Sterrett 11/26/06 A.P. European History.

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1 HW #23 Donald Sterrett 11/26/06 A.P. European History

2 The Columbian Exchange This is the term given to the flow of new diseases, animals, agriculture and ideas between the Americas, Europe and Africa after Columbus’ arrival in the “New World” Europeans brought new diseases (smallpox), animals (horses, pigs, sheep) and plants (peaches, oranges, rice, radishes) Europeans took back maize (corn) and potatoes

3 4 Causes of The Enlightenment 1.The Newtonian world view 2.The political stability and commercial prosperity of Great Britain 3.The need for administrative and economic reform in France after the wars of Louis XIV 4.The growth of the Print culture

4 Ideas of Newton and Locke Newton’s ideas had emphasized the power of human reason and the idea that all things could be understood. Newton emphasized importance of observation and experience. Locke believed that humans were born a tabula rasa (blank page) and thus could be improved. It disagrees with Church belief that man was permanently flawed by sin.

5 British Toleration and Political Stability Britain had the most religious and political freedom in the world. Parliament had gained a lot of power and people were free from unreasonable actions from the government.

6 Print Culture There was an expansion in literacy and an explosion in printing of newspapers, journals, and books. Growth of new types of writing for example the novel and now writers can make a living and become wealthy. Ideas of philosophes can now be sent around the country and across countries through print.

7 Philosophes 18 th century writers and critics who believed in political reform and toleration. They supported expanding trade, improvement of agriculture, and new inventions. Advocated freedom of speech, religion, free trade, natural rights, and the right to participate in government.

8 Voltaire Poet and playwright who angered French authorities with his works and was exiled in England. In England he saw their religious tolerance and their political rights that the British enjoyed. He writes plays and essays praising the British and attacking French religious intolerance and lack of rights. Also writes a book popularizing the ideas of Newton.

9 Immanuel Kant on the Enlightenment Please fill in your own notes here. Please fill in your own notes here.

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