Presentation on theme: "The Philosophes of the Enlightenment"— Presentation transcript:
1The Philosophes of the Enlightenment Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Diderot
2Voltaire Brief History Main Beliefs Important Writings Voltaire Born in Paris as Francois Marie Arouet in 1694Know for his humor and wit, Voltaire was imprisoned and later exiled for offending nobles. During his exile in England, Voltaire studied Locke’s philosophy and Newton’s scientific achievements. Voltaire also studied English religious toleration and the constitutional monarchy.“Fredrick the Great” invited Voltaire to live in Potsdam for three years. He returned to Paris after his stay in Potsdam.Voltaire died in Paris in 1778 and left behind over 14,000 letters and 2,000 books and pamphlets.Main BeliefsAdvocate of freedom of speech, freedom of press, and freedom of religionOpposed absolute monarchy in favor of a republicFierce opponent of slavery due to his belief in unalienable rightsProponent of religious tolerationVoltaireImportant WritingsLetters on the English – Praised their religious and intellectual toleration, and admired its scientific and economic prosperity. Voltaire enjoyed the moderate political atmosphere of England.Elements of the Philosophy of Newton- This book popularized the thoughts of Isaac Newton across the continent.Candide- Satirical novel attacking war, religion, persecution, and unwarranted optimism about the human condition.
3MontesquieuBorn to wealthy family as Charles Lau’s de Secandant, baron de Montesquieu.Wrote Spirit of Laws which explained that there was no universal law and laws should be adapted for those who they were towardsBeliefsBelieved in three types of governments: monarchy, republic, and despotism.Believed in a constitution as well as educating people to better the countryCommerce is not to be controlled by the governmentSeparated governmental power into sovereign and administrativeSeparated administrative powers into executive, legislative, and judicial.Each should be separate but dependent on each other .Hello, my name is montequieu
5Diderot (1713-1784) Edited the Encyclopedia in 1751 Beliefs: 17 volumes published between 1751 and 1772Collection of ideas of the time period, introduced to the public mindScience, contemporary affairs, philosophy, religion, natural history, economics, mathematics, politics, etc.Objective: “ [to] gather all the knowledge in the world” (Wikipedia)First publication to include the mechanical arts of machinery and laboringBeliefs:Hostile towards slaveryCritical of colonial empires and European dominationCondemned inhumane treatment of Native Americans (forced labor)Claimed Europeans greed had returned their behavior to barbaric ways, making them inferior to the nativesEqualityOther works:Pensees Philosophiques-sufficiency of natural religionDiderot