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World War II to Cold War to Vietnam. Who was involved in WWII? Axis Powers: Axis Powers: Germany, Japan, Italy Germany, Japan, Italy Allied Powers: Allied.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II to Cold War to Vietnam. Who was involved in WWII? Axis Powers: Axis Powers: Germany, Japan, Italy Germany, Japan, Italy Allied Powers: Allied."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II to Cold War to Vietnam

2 Who was involved in WWII? Axis Powers: Axis Powers: Germany, Japan, Italy Germany, Japan, Italy Allied Powers: Allied Powers: France, England, Soviet Union United States France, England, Soviet Union United States Similar to the sides during WWI. Similar to the sides during WWI.

3 Countries and their leaders Germany was lead by Adolf Hitler [Fuehrer] for about 12 years. Germany was lead by Adolf Hitler [Fuehrer] for about 12 years. Leader of Germanys Nazi party. Leader of Germanys Nazi party. Main ideas of his government: Main ideas of his government: white supremacy white supremacy Strong military Strong military Control of Central Europe Control of Central Europe Elimination of Jews Elimination of Jews

4 Countries and their leaders Italy was led by Benito Mussolini [president] for about 22 years. Italy was led by Benito Mussolini [president] for about 22 years. Leader of Italys Fascist party. Leader of Italys Fascist party. Main ideas of his government: Main ideas of his government: Extreme nationalism Extreme nationalism Strong military Strong military Against personal freedom Against personal freedom Against big business Against big business

5 Countries and their leaders Japan was led by Emperor Hirohito for about 20 years. Japan was led by Emperor Hirohito for about 20 years. Absolute Monarch of Japan. Absolute Monarch of Japan. Main ideas of his government: Main ideas of his government: Modern version of ancient Japan. Modern version of ancient Japan. Held absolute control over peoples lives. Held absolute control over peoples lives. Viciously loyal military. Viciously loyal military. Wanted control over fellow oriental Asians [China and Korea]. Wanted control over fellow oriental Asians [China and Korea].

6 Axis Powers These countries combined to form the Axis Powers. These countries combined to form the Axis Powers. Germany, Italy and Japan Germany, Italy and Japan Fought against the Allied Powers. Fought against the Allied Powers.

7 Countries and their leaders The United States was led by Franklin D. Roosevelt [president] for about 12 years. The United States was led by Franklin D. Roosevelt [president] for about 12 years. Leader of the Democratic party. Leader of the Democratic party. Main ideas of his government: Main ideas of his government: The government should help its people to succeed and survive. The government should help its people to succeed and survive. All people should work. All people should work. Private companies must help the government when it needs to. Private companies must help the government when it needs to.

8 Countries and their leaders The Soviet Union was led by Josef Stalin [Communist party leader] for about 30 years. The Soviet Union was led by Josef Stalin [Communist party leader] for about 30 years. Leader of the Communist party. Leader of the Communist party. Main ideas of his government: Main ideas of his government: Control every portion of peoples lives. Control every portion of peoples lives. Strong military. Strong military. Have equality among regular people. Have equality among regular people. No private businesses for profit. No private businesses for profit.

9 Countries and their leaders Great Britain was led by Winston Churchill [Prime Minister] for about 10 years. Great Britain was led by Winston Churchill [Prime Minister] for about 10 years. Prime Minister of England. Prime Minister of England. Main ideas of his government: Main ideas of his government: England must be a strong leader in the world. England must be a strong leader in the world. Government must help people succeed. Government must help people succeed. England must cooperate with its fellow countries. England must cooperate with its fellow countries.

10 Causes of World War II Treatment of Germany after W.W.I [signing of guilt clause, payment of reparations 1918]. Treatment of Germany after W.W.I [signing of guilt clause, payment of reparations 1918]. The Great Depression [stock market crash of 1929]. The Great Depression [stock market crash of 1929]. Holocaust [organized murder of Jews, Gypsies and handicapped people by Nazi Germany ]. Holocaust [organized murder of Jews, Gypsies and handicapped people by Nazi Germany ]. German invasions of their neighbors [Czechoslovakia and Poland ]. German invasions of their neighbors [Czechoslovakia and Poland ]. Japans attack on U.S. Naval base [Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 1941] Japans attack on U.S. Naval base [Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 1941]

11 Images of the Great Depression

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13 What caused the Great Depression? In 1929 the Stock Market crashed [called Black Tuesday]. In 1929 the Stock Market crashed [called Black Tuesday]. What does that mean? What does that mean? The value of American companies plunged. The value of American companies plunged. People were fired from their jobs and banks were forced to close. People were fired from their jobs and banks were forced to close. Almost all the money was gone. Almost all the money was gone.

14 Road to the Holocaust Before the Great Depression some of the richest people in Germany were Jews. Before the Great Depression some of the richest people in Germany were Jews. Owned businesses [department stores, jewelry stores and banks]. Owned businesses [department stores, jewelry stores and banks]. Some non-Jewish Germans became envious and hateful. Some non-Jewish Germans became envious and hateful.

15 Kristallnacht The night of the broken glass. The night of the broken glass. Two day reign of terror led by German Nazi Storm troopers on November 9-10, Two day reign of terror led by German Nazi Storm troopers on November 9-10, Destroyed private property of Jews in Germany and Austria. Destroyed private property of Jews in Germany and Austria. Homes, shops and businesses were ransacked and ravaged. Homes, shops and businesses were ransacked and ravaged.

16 Images of the Holocaust

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19 German Aggression towards its neighbors Why did Germany attack its neighbors? Why did Germany attack its neighbors? To gain more territory. To gain more territory. To show its power and inflict fear in other countries. To show its power and inflict fear in other countries.

20 Worlds reaction to Germanys aggression European countries became nervous over Germanys invasions. European countries became nervous over Germanys invasions. Englands Prime Minister [before Churchill] met with Hitler. Englands Prime Minister [before Churchill] met with Hitler. What did Hitler tell him? What did Hitler tell him? Czechoslovakia was all he wanted and no one else had to be worried. Czechoslovakia was all he wanted and no one else had to be worried.

21 Worlds reaction to Germanys aggression England was persuaded to abandon Czechoslovakia. England was persuaded to abandon Czechoslovakia. England persuaded her allies to appease [to satisfy, pacify, soothe, assuage] Germany as well. England persuaded her allies to appease [to satisfy, pacify, soothe, assuage] Germany as well. Germany did not stop there it attacked Poland, Austria, France, England and many others. Germany did not stop there it attacked Poland, Austria, France, England and many others.

22 Manhattan Project In 1941 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers started a top secret program to create a weapon of mass destruction. In 1941 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers started a top secret program to create a weapon of mass destruction. The program was code named Manhattan. The program was code named Manhattan. Scientists from countries such as Italy, Germany, Austria and the U.S. were able to enrich uranium and plutonium. Scientists from countries such as Italy, Germany, Austria and the U.S. were able to enrich uranium and plutonium. The process was based on atomic chain reactions which massive amounts of energy to release. The process was based on atomic chain reactions which massive amounts of energy to release. The weapon became known as the atomic bomb The weapon became known as the atomic bomb

23 Japans Aggression at Pearl Harbor

24 On December 7, 1941 Japan attacked the U.S. Naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. On December 7, 1941 Japan attacked the U.S. Naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The attack was done using war planes. The attack was done using war planes. Attack was a near total surprise but killed over 2,000 U.S. servicemen. Attack was a near total surprise but killed over 2,000 U.S. servicemen. F.D.R. called the day one that would live in infamy. F.D.R. called the day one that would live in infamy. The United States declared war against the Axis powers days after. The United States declared war against the Axis powers days after.

25 The United States Strikes Back! Within three days of each other the United States dropped two atomic bombs. Within three days of each other the United States dropped two atomic bombs. Code names were Fat man and Little Boy Code names were Fat man and Little Boy First one on Hiroshima, Japan. First one on Hiroshima, Japan. Second one on Nagasaki, Japan. Second one on Nagasaki, Japan. At least 80,000 killed instantly. At least 80,000 killed instantly. Many more died due to radiation poison later on. Many more died due to radiation poison later on.

26 Fat man and Little Boy

27 The End of World War II Germany was defeated by the Allies by May of 1945 called VE Day [Victory over Europe day]. Germany was defeated by the Allies by May of 1945 called VE Day [Victory over Europe day]. Japan surrendered to the United States on in September 1945 called VJ Day [Victory over Japan day]. Japan surrendered to the United States on in September 1945 called VJ Day [Victory over Japan day].

28 The Aftermath of the War The allied powers split up and Russia became an enemy of the United States. The allied powers split up and Russia became an enemy of the United States. Germany was split into two separate countries creating the Berlin Wall Germany was split into two separate countries creating the Berlin Wall In a speech at an American College Winston Churchill described the spread by saying it appears an iron curtain has descended over Eastern Europe. In a speech at an American College Winston Churchill described the spread by saying it appears an iron curtain has descended over Eastern Europe.iron curtain iron curtain Japan was occupied by the United States and was not allowed to have a military. Japan was occupied by the United States and was not allowed to have a military.

29 The Yalta Conference After WWII ended the Allied Powers [U.S., England and Soviet Union] had to decide what to do with the world. After WWII ended the Allied Powers [U.S., England and Soviet Union] had to decide what to do with the world. The Allied Powers met near the Soviet Union and decided to carve up Germany The Allied Powers met near the Soviet Union and decided to carve up Germany The allies agreed on some things but disagreed on others. The allies agreed on some things but disagreed on others. Stalin wanted to control countries in Eastern Europe. Stalin wanted to control countries in Eastern Europe. FDR and Churchill wanted countries to be democratic. FDR and Churchill wanted countries to be democratic.

30 Results of the Yalta Conference Europe was split into two parts [East and West]. Europe was split into two parts [East and West]. The East was controlled by the Soviet Union [controlled via the Iron Curtain]. The East was controlled by the Soviet Union [controlled via the Iron Curtain]. The West was influenced by the United States. The West was influenced by the United States. This created suspicion, competition and rivalry. This created suspicion, competition and rivalry.

31 What is a Superpower? Two (2) superpowers emerged from Yalta Two (2) superpowers emerged from Yalta Who were they? Who were they? United States and the Soviet Union United States and the Soviet Union These two countries were the most powerful for many reasons. These two countries were the most powerful for many reasons. Both had strong militaries Both had strong militaries Both had vast natural resources Both had vast natural resources No other country could, by itself, challenge them. No other country could, by itself, challenge them.

32 The United Nations A group of fifty (50) countries came together in June A group of fifty (50) countries came together in June Even though the Yalta Conference left the U.S. and Soviet Union at odds they also joined. Even though the Yalta Conference left the U.S. and Soviet Union at odds they also joined. The mission of the U.N. was to keep world peace. The mission of the U.N. was to keep world peace. Each member nation has a vote [members are called diplomats]. Each member nation has a vote [members are called diplomats]. The real power rests with the large countries which constitute the security council. The real power rests with the large countries which constitute the security council.

33 Truman Doctrine Truman Doctrine FDR died in 1945 FDR died in 1945 Vice President Harry Truman took over and decided stop babying the Soviets. Vice President Harry Truman took over and decided stop babying the Soviets.Harry TrumanHarry Truman Truman began of policy of containment. Truman began of policy of containment. This meant keeping the Soviets from spreading communism to other countries. This meant keeping the Soviets from spreading communism to other countries.

34 The Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan Former World War II army general, George Marshall, became Trumans Secretary of State after the war Former World War II army general, George Marshall, became Trumans Secretary of State after the war He designed the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe. He designed the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe. Offered money, equipment, food, machines and workers Offered money, equipment, food, machines and workers Purpose? Purpose? Fix damage caused by WWII Fix damage caused by WWII

35 Berlin Airlift The Soviets challenged Trumans containment and occasionally test the United States. The Soviets challenged Trumans containment and occasionally test the United States. Best example of this was Stalins blockade of West Berlin Best example of this was Stalins blockade of West Berlin Truman was forced to fly in food, fuel and supplies for West Germans cut off by the Soviets. Truman was forced to fly in food, fuel and supplies for West Germans cut off by the Soviets. More than 277,000 flights dropped off 2 million tons of supplies. More than 277,000 flights dropped off 2 million tons of supplies.

36 Tension between the Superpowers The blockade of Berlin by the Soviets heightened the fear of Western Europe. The blockade of Berlin by the Soviets heightened the fear of Western Europe. Within months countries including France, England, Italy, Canada and the U.S. formed NATO. Within months countries including France, England, Italy, Canada and the U.S. formed NATO. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization The North Atlantic Treaty Organization Purpose? Purpose? To counter the threat of Soviet aggression. To counter the threat of Soviet aggression.

37 Soviet response to NATO Soviet response to NATO The Soviet Union developed its own alliance in 1955 forming the Warsaw Pact. The Soviet Union developed its own alliance in 1955 forming the Warsaw Pact. Purpose(s)? Purpose(s)? [a] The counter the growing influence of NATO. [a] The counter the growing influence of NATO. [b] Increase the power of the Soviet Union. [b] Increase the power of the Soviet Union.

38 U.S.-U.S.S.R. Relations Because of tensions between the two superpowers the risk of war was great. Because of tensions between the two superpowers the risk of war was great. By 1949 the U.S.S.R. had also become a nuclear power. By 1949 the U.S.S.R. had also become a nuclear power. Because of the threat of nuclear war both sides were cautious. Because of the threat of nuclear war both sides were cautious.

39 U.S.-U.S.S.R. Relations Threats of war from both sides were constant. Threats of war from both sides were constant. Both sides tested each other occasionally with minor challenges to see what the other would do. Both sides tested each other occasionally with minor challenges to see what the other would do. At other times the challenges were great. At other times the challenges were great. In the face of challenges important decisions had to occur. In the face of challenges important decisions had to occur. Should we use nuclear force? Should we use nuclear force? These type of battles were called brinkmanship. These type of battles were called brinkmanship. Forcing the other side to the brink of war. Forcing the other side to the brink of war. Bay of Pigs Invasion In April of 1961 a secret C.I.A. sponsored mission to overthrow Cuban Communist leader Fidel Castro was defeated by Cuban forces. Castro soon after sought the protection of the Soviet Union.

40 U.S.-U.S.S.R. Relations: Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 To assist Cuba the Soviet Union secretly placed nuclear missiles inside of Cuba. To assist Cuba the Soviet Union secretly placed nuclear missiles inside of Cuba. Our U-2 spy planes detected the missiles and took pictures of them. Our U-2 spy planes detected the missiles and took pictures of them. After President Kennedy was informed about the missiles less than 100 miles away from Florida and 5 minutes away from major U.S. cities after launch 13 days of brinkmanship between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. ensued. Thankfully the crisis was diffused and the Cuban missiles were dismantled and sent back to the Soviet Union. After President Kennedy was informed about the missiles less than 100 miles away from Florida and 5 minutes away from major U.S. cities after launch 13 days of brinkmanship between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. ensued. Thankfully the crisis was diffused and the Cuban missiles were dismantled and sent back to the Soviet Union. Examples of brinkmanship during the Cuban Missile Crisis were: Examples of brinkmanship during the Cuban Missile Crisis were: [1] Continued U-2 flights and Cuban anti-aircraft fire at spy planes [2] U.S. quarantined with its Navy Soviet ships from entering Cuba with their ships [a blockade would have been an act of war] [3] U.S. military was put on highest alert and performed public training maneuvers [4] U.S. exploded a nuclear bomb in New Mexico and broadcast the blast on television.

41 U.S.-U.S.S.R. Relations: U-2 incident To gain information on the other side espionage was practiced. To gain information on the other side espionage was practiced. The U.S. sent countless aerial spy missions using U-2 spy planes. The U.S. sent countless aerial spy missions using U-2 spy planes. In 1960 an American U-2 was shot down over Soviet territory. In 1960 an American U-2 was shot down over Soviet territory. The U.S. pilot, Gary Powers, was jailed for nearly 2 years. The U.S. pilot, Gary Powers, was jailed for nearly 2 years.

42 Competition in arms/technology Competition in arms/technology Americans were first to create nuclear weapons but the Soviets were first in creating/launching satellites and ICBMs [intercontinental ballistic missiles]. Americans were first to create nuclear weapons but the Soviets were first in creating/launching satellites and ICBMs [intercontinental ballistic missiles]. In 1957 the USSR launched the space satellite Sputnik via ICBM. In 1957 the USSR launched the space satellite Sputnik via ICBM. The satellite was the first to circle the earth from space and could take pictures of the earths surface. The satellite was the first to circle the earth from space and could take pictures of the earths surface. ICBMs could reach targets far from their launch sites. ICBMs could reach targets far from their launch sites.

43 Truman and the Korean Conflict During the last years of Harry Trumans presidency an effort contain the spread of communism throughout Asia persisted. During the last years of Harry Trumans presidency an effort contain the spread of communism throughout Asia persisted. From the United States engaged in a conflict [sometimes called war] with Korea. From the United States engaged in a conflict [sometimes called war] with Korea. During the War Communist Korea [North] had assistance from China. During the War Communist Korea [North] had assistance from China. The United States supported the Southern republican effort and after 2.5 years of fierce fighting the nation was split at the 38 th line of latitude. The United States supported the Southern republican effort and after 2.5 years of fierce fighting the nation was split at the 38 th line of latitude.

44 McCarthyism and the Red Scare Throughout the mid 1940s to the 1950s a powerful U.S. Senator from Minnesota Joseph McCarthy conducted investigations into communist infiltration of the United States. Throughout the mid 1940s to the 1950s a powerful U.S. Senator from Minnesota Joseph McCarthy conducted investigations into communist infiltration of the United States. With use of the F.B.I. files, surveillance, background checks and congressional hearings McCarthy intended to root out perceived threats against the security of the United States. With use of the F.B.I. files, surveillance, background checks and congressional hearings McCarthy intended to root out perceived threats against the security of the United States. Many hundreds of well known and unknown Americans were ruined because of their beliefs and connections to certain groups. Many hundreds of well known and unknown Americans were ruined because of their beliefs and connections to certain groups. Eventually because of irrational accusations and investigative errors McCarthyism was discredited. Eventually because of irrational accusations and investigative errors McCarthyism was discredited.

45 The Vietnam War Perhaps the most unpopular U.S. war until the Iraq War of Perhaps the most unpopular U.S. war until the Iraq War of U.S. involvement began first as an advisory role sending expert military officers to help French forces against Communist Vietnamese troops. U.S. involvement began first as an advisory role sending expert military officers to help French forces against Communist Vietnamese troops. By 1961 U.S. involvement was fully engaged. By 1961 U.S. involvement was fully engaged. Presidents Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon escalated U.S. involvement to over 100,000 troops at its peak. Presidents Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon escalated U.S. involvement to over 100,000 troops at its peak.

46 The Vietnam War The war became increasing unpopular within the United States after American death tolls continued to climb. The war became increasing unpopular within the United States after American death tolls continued to climb. Alleged American war crimes and atrocities by U.S. servicemen contributed to the poor outlook. Alleged American war crimes and atrocities by U.S. servicemen contributed to the poor outlook. Male citizens were drafted in huge numbers. Many men refused to serve. Male citizens were drafted in huge numbers. Many men refused to serve. Eventually about 58,000 U.S. servicemen were killed in the conflict. Eventually about 58,000 U.S. servicemen were killed in the conflict. Hundreds more are unaccounted for as Missing in Action or possible Prisoners of War. Hundreds more are unaccounted for as Missing in Action or possible Prisoners of War. The entire context of the war had been to contain the spread of communism. The entire context of the war had been to contain the spread of communism.

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