Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Assignment #74 Intro to Acids & Bases.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Assignment #74 Intro to Acids & Bases."— Presentation transcript:

1 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Assignment #74 Intro to Acids & Bases

2 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Properties Acids Taste Sour Aqueous Electrolytic Ions in Solution H + Ions Corrosive Feel Watery Low pH Bases Taste Bitter Aqueous Electrolytic Ions in Solution OH - Ions Corrosive Feel Slippery High pH

3 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Properties Acids Taste Sour Aqueous Electrolytic Ions in Solution H + Ions Corrosive Feel Watery Low pH (pH<7) Bases Taste Bitter Aqueous Electrolytic Ions in Solution OH - Ions Corrosive Feel Slippery High pH (pH>7)

4 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Arrhenius Definition Svante Arrhenius Acids Contain Hydrogen Ion (H + ) Bases Contain Hydroxide Ion (OH - ) HCl, KOH Minor Problem: H + Ion Is Unstable H + (aq.) H 3 O + (aq.) Hydronium Ion Bigger Problem: NH 3 Its a Base

5 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Arrhenius Acid/Base Reaction Combine sulfuric acid with aqueous potassium hydroxide. H 2 SO 4(aq.) + KOH (aq.) Double Replacement

6 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Arrhenius Acid/Base Reaction Combine sulfuric acid with aqueous potassium hydroxide. H 2 SO 4(aq.) + KOH (aq.) H 2 O + K 2 SO 4

7 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Arrhenius Acid/Base Reaction Combine sulfuric acid with aqueous potassium hydroxide. H 2 SO 4(aq.) + 2 KOH (aq.) 2 H 2 O + K 2 SO 4

8 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Arrhenius Acid/Base Reaction Combine sulfuric acid with aqueous potassium hydroxide. H 2 SO 4(aq.) + 2 KOH (aq.) 2 H 2 O (l.) + K 2 SO 4(aq.) Spectator Ions: K + and SO 4 2- Net-Ionic Equation 2 H + (aq.) + 2 OH - (aq.) 2 H 2 O (l.) 2 H 3 O + (aq.) + 2 OH - (aq.) 4 H 2 O (l.)

9 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Arrhenius Acid/Base Reaction Combine sulfuric acid with aqueous potassium hydroxide. H 2 SO 4(aq.) + 2 KOH (aq.) 2 H 2 O (l.) + K 2 SO 4(aq.) Arrhenius acid/base reactions always make water and a salt. Potassium sulfate is the salt in this reaction.

10 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Brønsted-Lowry Definition Johannes Brønsted and Thomas Lowry Acids Donate a Proton H + Ion is a Proton HCl, HNO 3 Bases Accept a Proton OH - NH 3

11 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Brønsted-Lowry Acid/Base Reaction Combine hydrochloric acid with aqueous ammonia. HCl (aq.) + NH 3(aq.) HCl is the acid (Donates H + ) NH 3 is the base (Accepts H + )

12 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Brønsted-Lowry Acid/Base Reaction Combine hydrochloric acid with aqueous ammonia. HCl (aq.) + NH 3(aq.) Cl - (aq.) + NH 4 + (aq.) HCl is the acid (Donates H + ) NH 3 is the base (Accepts H + ) Brønsted-Lowry acid/base reactions just make a salt, no water. Ammonium chloride is the salt in this reaction.

13 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Conjugate Acids and Bases The acids and bases in the reverse reaction are called conjugates. HCl (aq.) + NH 3(aq.) Cl - (aq.) + NH 4 + (aq.) Conjugate Acid: Conjugate Base:

14 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Conjugate Acids and Bases The acids and bases in the reverse reaction are called conjugates. HCl (aq.) + NH 3(aq.) Cl - (aq.) + NH 4 + (aq.) Conjugate Acid: NH 4 + Conjugate Base: Cl - The acid becomes the conjugate base, and the base becomes the conjugate acid.

15 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry More Brønsted-Lowry Acid/Base Reactions HCl (aq.) + H 2 O (l.) Hydrochloric acid is the acid, so water must be the base.

16 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry More Brønsted-Lowry Acid/Base Reactions HCl (aq.) + H 2 O (l.) Cl - (aq.) + H 3 O + (aq.) Conjugate Acid and Conjugate Base? Conjugate Acid is Hydronium Ion Conjugate Base is Chloride Ion

17 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry More Brønsted-Lowry Acid/Base Reactions NH 3(aq.) + H 2 O (l.) Ammonia the base, so water must be the acid.

18 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry More Brønsted-Lowry Acid/Base Reactions NH 3(aq.) + H 2 O (l.) NH 4 + (aq.) + OH - (aq.) Conjugate Acid and Conjugate Base? Conjugate Acid is Ammonium Ion Conjugate Base is Hydroxide Ion

19 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Amphoteric HCl (aq.) + H 2 O (l.) Cl - (aq.) + H 3 O + (aq.) Water is the base. NH 3(aq.) + H 2 O (l.) NH 4 + (aq.) + OH - (aq.) Water is the acid. Water can act as an acid or a base. Water is amphoteric. Amphoteric Does Not Mean Neutral.

20 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Polyprotic Acids Can donate more than one proton. H 2 SO 4 is Diprotic. First Proton: H 2 SO 4(aq.) + H 2 O (l.) HSO 4 - (aq.) + H 3 O + (aq.) Second Proton: HSO 4 - (aq.) + H 2 O (l.) SO 4 2- (aq.) + H 3 O + (aq.) Other polyprotic acids: H 2 CO 3 H 3 PO 4

21 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Summary Properties of Acids and Bases Taste (Sour vs. Bitter) Touch (Slippery Bases) Conductivity (Both Electrolytic) pH Arrhenius Definition Acids Have H+ / Bases Have OH- Brønsted-Lowry Definition Acids Donate a Proton Bases Accept a Proton Hydronium Ion Conjugate Acids and Bases Water Can Be Amphoteric Polyprotic Acids

22 1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Tonight's Assignment AssignmentReadingProblems NumberSectionsPagesQuestionsPages ,2,3,20 / / 919


Download ppt "1/7/2014Regular Chemistry Assignment #74 Intro to Acids & Bases."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google