Presentation on theme: "Acids and Bases Chapter 19. Characteristics of Acids Acids –Sour tasting – vinegar, lemons –React with metals and produce H 2 (g) –React with metal carbonates."— Presentation transcript:
Acids and Bases Chapter 19
Characteristics of Acids Acids –Sour tasting – vinegar, lemons –React with metals and produce H 2 (g) –React with metal carbonates to produce CO 2 –Blue Litmus Paper Red –Conductive –H + ions > OH - ions –pH < 7
Characteristics of Bases Bases –Bitter tasting (soap) –Slippery –Red Litmus Paper Blue –Conductive –OH - ions > H + ions –pH > 7
Pure Water is Neutral
Arrhenius Acid Donates a H+ ion in an aqueous solution
Arrhenius Base Donates a OH- in an aqueous solution Model doesnt explain why ammonia is a base.
Bronsted-Lowry Model Acid – donates a H+ Base –accepts a H+
Forms when the base accepts a H+ ion Forms when the acid donates a H+ ion to a base
Which is the acid? Base? Conjugate Acid? Conjugate Base?
Bronsted-Lowry Expands the range of acids and bases. Amphoteric – acts as an acid and a base (water)
Monoprotic and Polyprotic Acids Mono – donates only one H+ –HCl, HNO 3, CH 3 COOH –Not covalently bonded, ionizable Poly – donates more than one H+ –Diprotic – H 2 SO 4 –Triprotic – H 3 PO 4
Phosphoric Acid is triprotic
Acid Strength Strong acids completely ionize Weak acids do not completely ionize
Base Strength Strong Bases dissociate into metal ions and hydroxide ions Weak base partially ionizes in dilute aqueous solutions