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More Reactions in Aqueous Solution: Acids and Bases Applied Physics and Chemistry Aqueous Lecture 3.

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Presentation on theme: "More Reactions in Aqueous Solution: Acids and Bases Applied Physics and Chemistry Aqueous Lecture 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 More Reactions in Aqueous Solution: Acids and Bases Applied Physics and Chemistry Aqueous Lecture 3

2 Acids Acid: – From the Latin acidus, meaning sour – General characteristics: Sour taste Turn blue litmus red React with bases to produce water and a salt

3 Arrhenius Svante Arrhenius ( ) – Swedish physicist – Worked on electrolytes – Proposed definition of acids and bases – Nobel prize in 1903 for study of solution conductivity Definition of Arrhenius acid: – Acid is a substance that produces H+ ions when it is dissolved in water – Strong acids: HCl, HNO 3, H 2 SO 4

4 Bases Base: – Sometimes called alkalis Hydroxides of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals – General characteristics: Bitter taste Slippery feel Turns red litmus blue

5 Arrhenius Definition of Arrhenius base: – Base is a substance that produces OH- ions when dissolved in water – Strong bases: NaOH, KOH

6 Acid-Base Reactions When strong acids and strong bases are mixed, the H+ and OH- form a compound The other thing formed is called a salt – Salt: ionic compound formed by reaction of acid and base Example: – NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) ? – NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) + H2O (l)

7 Another Example! Nitric acid, a strong acid, reacts with potassium hydroxide Hydrochloric acid reacts with rubidium hydroxide Sulfuric acid reacts with potassium hydroxide


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